Shared Flashcard Set


EPP Test 4 Review
see above
Political Studies
Undergraduate 2

Additional Political Studies Flashcards




Evolution of Federal Clean Air Laws

1955 – Air Pollution Control Act

1963 - Clean Air Act, Public Health Service

1967 - Air Quality Act

1970 - EPA created, Permitting Program, State Implementation Plans (SIPs), National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

1972 - Ozone NAAQS (0.08 ppm), Total Suspended Particulate
      (150 micrograms)

1977 - Strengthens Mobile Source, Prevention of Significant
      Deterioration, Nonattainment Areas Required

1979 - Ozone NAAQS Changed to 0.12 ppm

1987 - Total Particulate NAAQS Changed to 10 Microns (PM-10)

1990 – Amendments Implement Rate of Progress And New
      Classification System

2001 – Supreme Court Upholds EPA’s authority to implement new
      rules: 8-hour ozone standard; fine particulates (PM-2.5)


What are the National Ambient Air Quality Standards?



1. Federal Standards to Protect Public Health


2. Specified in the Clean Air Act for 6 criteria pollutants


-Sulfur Dioxide

-Carbon Monoxide


-Nitrogen Oxide



3. EPA designates areas attainment or nonattainment based on whether they meet NAAQS


4. Dallas/Fort Worth is attainment for 5 of the 6, but nonattainment for ozone


What is Ozone?

Location is everything


-Good up there (15 miles+)

-Stratospheric ozone shields earth from UV   rays


-Bad down here (<12 to 6 miles from surface)

-Produced in Nature: Lightning, Pine trees

-Excess comes from chemical reactions such as burning of fossil fuels, coal, as well as from vapors of solvents, paints, etc.






How does ground level Ozone affect health?

1. irritates nose, throat, and airways

2. Can cause coughing and chest paint

3. Reduces the ability to perform physical exercise

4. Children and asthmatics most at risk

5. Exercising outdoors on high ozone summer days increases risk

Recipe for Ground-Level Ozone

1. Combine nitrogen oxides (NOx) together with volatile organic compounds (VOCs)


2. Add plenty of hot dry weather and little or no wind


3. Bake in sunshine for several hours

Existing Ozone Standard

1. 125 parts per billion

-No more than 123 molecules of ozone per billion molecules of air


2. Based on a 1-hour average of monitor readings


3. No more than three exceedances over a consecutive three year period at a single monitor

Potential Air Quality Sanctions

Sanctions imposed if:

1. TCEQ doesn't submit a plan to EPA on time

2. TCEQ doesn't submit a complete plan

3. Projects not implemented from plan

Implications of Sanctions:

1. Increased difficulty in locating or expanding business and industry in the area

2. Loss of transportation funds for roadway capacity improvements ($450 million/year)

Preparing a Clean Air Plan to Attain the 1-hr Ozone Standard

1. After application of state and federal controls by the year 2007, the DFW ozone level is anticipated to be about 138 ppb


2. NOx reduction control measures must be creditable, realistic, and enforceable

Development of a New Clean Air Plan

1. Fall 1999, TNRCC determined through photochemical modeling that DFW must reduce NOx emissions by 44% from 1996 levels, including anticipated state and federal controls, to meet the 1-hour ozone standard of 125 ppb by 2007.


2. Posed significant challenge

Intensive Development Effort within DFW Area Interests

1. Concerted effort to identify, evaluate, and finalize control strategies during August-October 1999.


2. More than 300 control measures for point, mobile, and area sources were identified by 15 technical groups and TNRCC


3. Measures screened and ranked by ENVIRON International, a national air quality consultant employed by 4 counties and NCTCOG

Development of a New Clean Air Plan (1999)

1. August 1999

- 4 nonattainment counties begin work with TNRCC on new plan

-County judges appoint Clean Air Steering Committee to oversee plan development

2. September 1999

-Technical subcommittees brainstorm over 300 potential control measures

-Consultant ranks the 300 measures based on expected emission benefits, technical feasibility, and public acceptability 


3. October 1999

-With TNRCC input, consultant recommends 17 measures to the Steering Committee

-Steering Committee recommends measures to TNRCC


Development of New Clean Air Plan (Cont'd 2000-2001)

1. January-February 2000 - TNRCC solicits public comment


2. April 2000 - TNRCC recommends control measures to EPA


3. January 2001 - After technical review, EPA issues draft decision approving plan


4. Spring 2001

-60 day comment period on EPA's draft decision (approval)

-Lawsuits in process of being resolved


5. April 2001 - Final EPA action


6. After April 2001 - Implementation

Clean Air Plan Highlights

Industrial Point Sources


88% reduction in NOx emissions for 4 nonattainment counties, 2003-2005

50% reduction in NOx emissions for surrounding counties, 2003-2005

-Cement Kilns

30% reduction in NOx emissions for entire region, 2003-2005

Clean Air Plan Highlights (Automobiles and other on-road vehicles)

1. Low emission diesel fuel

2. More stringent inspection and maintenance

3. 5 mph speed limit reduction

4. Transportation Control Measures

5. Travel Demand Management

6. Voluntary vehicle retirement

Clean Air Plan Highlights (Construction Equipment)

1. Low emission diesl fuel

2. Operating Ban

-Construction equipment cannot operate betwen 6AM and 10AM during Ozone Season, or must achieve equivalent reduction

-Accelerated purchase of clean equipment

Clean Air Plan Highlights (Airports)

Electrification of airport ground support equipment or equivalent reduction by 2007

Clean Air Plan Highlights (Buildings)

1. Low NOx water heters and small boilers by 2002-2005


2. Building energy efficiency codes by 2001


2007 SIP had a parallel goal for the 1-hour standard and a new 8-hour standard


1997 Ozone NAAQS:

-8-Hour Ozone: 0.08 ppm


2008 Revisions to the Ozone NAAQS:

-8-Hour Ozone: 0.075 ppm

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