Shared Flashcard Set


English as a World Language
Midterm Review
Undergraduate 4

Additional English Flashcards




Influence of Latin and French on English
In 1066, the King of England died without an heir. Second cousin to the deceased King assumed the throne...William (the duke of Normandy). He created a French-speaking Norman aristocracy. The Royal Court in England was now Norman. (if you wanted to have dealings with court, you had to know French). English rule regained but the language was forever changed.Most lexical government terms were adopted, as well as acut accent marking.

Latin influenced lexicon during the Roman Times. By the middle of the 14th century, England was christianized. Latin assumed the High Language (being the official language of Catholocism). Legal and religious documents were almost always in Latin.
H and L languages
Linguists use these terms to distinguish between two different kinds of usage domain.

H- variety of English used in formal, written, legal and other "serious" domains.

L- everyday language, familial or intimate settings.

H and L can be different or the same language.
Survey method used for Labov/Ash/Boberg’s Atlas of North American English
The Founder's Principle
American dialects still reflect some of the influence of the dialects brought by the original English-speaking colonists.

Early patterns of migration from settlers in different parts of the UK reflect American dialects today. (the NE)
Group-Exclusive vs. Group-Preferential Features
Exclusive- used only by one group, no other group uses it.

Preferential-rural group dialect is preferred over the urban group dialect.
Three centers of settlement on the Eastern seaboard in the US during the 17th and 18th centuries
1) Jamestown, Virginia- settled by SouthEast Englanders in 1607.

2) Philidelphia- established in 1638 by the Quakers. (ppl from Northern England and the North Midlands)

3) Charleston, SC-established in 1670.

4) New Orleans- French in 1717.

Cot-Caught Merger
The cot-caught merger (also known as the low back merger) is a phonemic merger, a sound change, that occurs in some varieties of English. The merger occurs in some accents of Scottish English [2] and to some extent in Mid Ulster English [2] but is best known as a phenomenon of many varieties of North American English. The sound change causes the vowel in caught, talk, and small to be pronounced like the vowel in cot, rock, and doll, so that cot and caught, for example, become homophones, and the two vowels merge into a single phoneme. The presence of the merger and its absence are both found in many different regions of the continent, and in both urban and rural environments.
The periods of English
449-1066 is OE;
1066-16th c is ME;
16th to 18th is Early Modern;
18th to present is Modern
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