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Endocrine System
review questions 5
45
Physiology
Graduate
05/17/2011

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Term

Which of the following is true regarding endocrine glands?

A) As the body matures, endocrine glands develop from specialized exocrine glands

 

B) Endocrine glands empty their products into a duct

 

C) Examples of endocrine glands include sweat glands and and salivary glands

 

D) Endocrine glands are connective tissues that are specialized to produce and secrete a product.

 

E) Endocrine glands produce and secrete hormones.

Definition
E) Endocrine glands produce and secrete hormones.
Term

The hormone primarily responsible for setting the basal netabolic rate and for promoting the maturation of the brain is?

 

A) cortisol

 

B) ACTH

 

C) TSH

 

D) Thyroxine

Definition
D) Thyroxine
Term

Virtually all of the protein or amino acid based hormones exert their effects through intercellular ___________?

 

A) ions

 

B) deactivators

 

C) nucleotides

 

D) second messengers

Definition
D) second messengers
Term

Which of the following is NOT a category of endocrine gland stimulus?

 

A) enzyme

 

B) humoral

 

C) neural

 

D) hormonal

Definition
A) enzyme
Term

Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids and that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called ______?

 

A) enzymes

 

B) antibodies

 

C) proteins

 

D) hormones

 

Definition
D) hormones
Term

The hypothalamic- hypophyseal tract ____?

 

A) connects the hypophysis to the pituitary gland.

 

B) is partly contained within the infundibulum

 

C) conducts aldosterone to the hypophysis

 

D) is the site of prolactin synthesis.

Definition
B) is partly contained within the infundibulum
Term

Which of the following is a cardinal sign of diabetes mellitus?

 

A) polyuria

 

B) polydipsea

 

C) polyphagia

 

D) all of the above are signs

Definition
D) all of the above are signs
Term

Oxytocin _______.

 

A) release is an example of a postive feedback control mechanism (during labor)

 

B) is an adenohypophyseal secretion.

 

C) exerts its most important effects during menstruation

 

D) controls milk production

 

E) A and D are true

Definition
E) A and D are true
Term

Steroid hormones are secreted by

 

A) the adrenal cortex

 

B) the gonads

 

C) the thyroid

 

D) both A and B

 

E) both B and C

Definition
D) both A and B
Term

Thyroid hormone exerts its influence by _______.

 

A) entering some cells and binding to intracellular receptors within the nuclei.

 

B) exerting only a minor effect on body metabolism.

 

C) causing a reduction in the number of blood vessel adrenergic receptors, and therefore decrease blood pressure.

 

D) acting to decrease basal metabolic rate.

 

Definition
A) entering some cells and binding to intracellular receptors within the nuclei.
Term

Gonadocorticoid(s) ______.

 

A) synthesized by the adrenal medulla are primarily androgens

 

B) production by the adrenal gland is insignificant compared to the sex hormone release from the gonads during late puberty

 

C) secretion inhibition is highly dependent on a negative feedback loop involving ACTH

 

D) hypersecretion can result in adrenogentital syndrome, also called, feminization

Definition
B) production by the adrenal gland is insignificant compared to the sex hormone release from the gonads during late puberty
Term

Sometimes prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentrations causes a phenomenon known as _____.

 

A) diabetes mellitus

 

B) cellular inhibition

 

C) down- regulation

 

D) metabolism of protein kinases

Definition
C) down- regulation
Term

Which of the following is NOT a change that may be caused by hormonal stimulation?

 

A) a change in the membrane potential

 

B) the stimulation of a genetic event resulting in protein synthesis

 

C) an increse in enzymatic activity

 

D) direct control of the nervous system

Definition
D) direct control of the nervous system
Term

The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on ___.

 

A) the location of the tissue or organ with respect to the circulatory path.

 

B) the membrane potential of the cells of the target organ.

 

C) the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ

 

D) nothing, all of the hormones of the human body are ablt to stimulate any and all cell types because hormones are powerful and non specific.

Definition
C) the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ
Term

Several hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior pituitary gland.  The mechanism of transportation from the hypothalamus to the anterior pit. gland is through the _____.

 

A) hepatic portal system

 

B) general circulatory system

 

C) hypophyseal portal system

 

D) feedback loop

Definition
C) hypophyseal portal system
Term

The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the the pit. gland is NOT a true endocrine gland because _____.

 

A) it is strictly part of the neural system and has little to do with hormonal release

 

B) embryonically it was an endocrine tissue, but in the adult human it is no longer functional.

 

C) it is unable to function as an endocrine tissue because it is actually part of the neural system due to its location

 

D) it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release.

Definition
D) it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release.
Term

Steroid hormones exert their action by ____.

 

A) entering the nucleus of a cell and inititating or altering the expression of a gene.

 

B) finding an appropriate cell receptor and initiating cAMP activity.

 

C) stimulating the synthesis of a glycogen

 

D) increasing blood pressure

Definition
A) entering the nucleus of a cell and inititating or altering the expression of a gene.
Term

The second messenger mechanism of a hormone action operates by _____.

 

A) synthesizing more of the hormone than is actually needed.

 

B) increasing the basal metabolic rate of the target organ

 

C) not responding to a feedback mechanism

 

D) binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP

Definition
D) binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP
Term

Hormones often cause a cell to elicit multiple responses: this is because _______.

 

A) there are thousands of receptors on the cell memebrane

 

B) the receptors bind to several hormones at the same time

 

C) the protein kinases are rapidly metabolized

 

D) during protein kinase activation, enzymes phosphorylate many other enzymes

Definition
D) during protein kinase activation, enzymes phosphorylate many other enzymes
Term

Cells that respond to peptide hormones usually do so through a sequence of biochemical reactions involving receptor and kinase activation.  In order for cells to respond, it is necessary for first and second messengers to communicate.  This is possible because ______.

 

A) peptide hormones always enter the cell membrane and elicit a response w/out assistance from other messengers 

 

B) hormones alter cellular operations through stimulation of a gene directly

 

C) G protein acts as the link btwn first and second messengers

 

D) the hormone receptor complex moves into the cytoplasm as a unit.

 

Definition
C) G protein acts as the link btwn first and second messengers
Term

Thyroid hormone (a small iodated amine) enters target cells in a manner similar to _____.

 

A) insulin, because insulin is a small peptide

 

B) steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into targeted cells

 

C) growth hormone, because the thyroid works synergistically with the thyroid hormone

 

D) glucagon, because the structure of glucagon is similar to thyroid hormone

Definition
B) steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into targeted cells
Term

When it becomes necessary to enlist the fight or flight response, a hormone that is released during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is _____?

 

A) estrogen

 

B) epinephrine

 

C) angiotensinogen

 

D) renin

Definition
B) epinephrine
Term

One of the least complicated of the endocrine control systems directly responds to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients.  Which of the following describes this mechanism?

 

A) the rapid oxidation of carbohydrates

 

B) catabolic inhibition

 

C) protein synthesis

 

D) humoral stimulation

Definition
D) humoral stimulation
Term

The major targets of growth hormone are _____.

 

A) the blood vessels

 

B) the adrenal glands

 

C) the liver

 

D) bones and skeletal muscles

Definition
D) bones and skeletal muscles
Term

The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium.  This is accomplished through _____.

 

A) blocking the action of growth hormone

 

B) targeting the bone and activating osteoclasts  so that calcium will be released

 

C) antagonizing the synthesis of calcitonin

 

D) slowing the activity of tissues that require calcium for activity.

Definition

B) targeting the bone and activating osteoclasts  so that calcium will be released


Term

Which organ is responsible for synthesizing ANP?

 

A) the heart

 

B) the kidney

 

C) the skin

 

D) the spleen

Definition
A) the heart
Term

Mineralcorticoid is to aldosterone as glucocorticoid is to ______.

 

A) testosterone

 

B) estrogen

 

C) cortisol

 

D) epinephrine

Definition
C) cortisol
Term

which of the following statements about hypothalamic-releasing hormones is true?

 

A) They are secreted by neurons (neuroendocrine cells) in the hypothalamus.

 

B) they are transported by portal veins to the anterior pituitary

 

C) They stimulate the secretion of specific hormones from the anterior pituitary

 

D) all of the above are true

Definition
D) all of the above are true
Term

The most important regulator of electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is ______.

 

A) insulin

 

B) aldosterone

 

C) glucagon

 

D) cortisol

Definition
B) aldosterone
Term

Which of the following is NOT a steroid based hormone?

 

A) estrogen

 

B) aldosterone

 

C) epinephrine

 

D) cortisone

Definition
C) epinephrine
Term

Which of the following would be associated with the action of steroids on cells?

 

A) extracellular receptors with a specificity for only a single amino acid sequence on the hormone

 

B) an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cyclic AMP

 

C) second messenger systems

 

D) a hormone receptor complex that interacts directly with the cell's DNA

Definition
D) a hormone receptor complex that interacts directly with the cell's DNA
Term

Cellular responses to hormones that initiate second- messenger systems include _____.

 

A) possible activation of several different second-messenger  systems

 

B) cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase formation of an active second messenger

 

C) formation of a specific protein kinase that acts on a series of extracellular intermediates

 

D) hormone binding to intracellular receptors

Definition
A) possible activation of several different second-messenger  systems
Term

Regulating hormones from the hypothalamus ____.

 

A) enter venous circulation and travel to the heart, which pumps the hormone- containing blood to the pit. 

 

B) enter the hepatic portal system, which feeds the pit.

 

C) travel by arteries to the pit.

 

D) first enter the hypophyseal portal system

Definition
D) first enter the hypophyseal portal system
Term

ACTH _____.

 

A) is secreted by the posterior pituitary

 

B) secretion is regulated by a hypothalamic secretion

 

C) causes release of hormones from the adrenal medulla

 

D) is not a tropic hormone

Definition
B) secretion is regulated by a hypothalamic secretion
Term

Which is true about calcium homeostasis?

 

A) Increased calcitonin levels will cause increased blood calcium levels.

 

B) High calcium levels cause bone resorption

 

C) Parathyroid hormone causes an increase in osteoblast activity

 

D) Parathyroid hormone is the single most important regulator of calcium levels in the blood.

 

 

Definition

D) Parathyroid hormone is the single most important regulator of calcium levels in the blood.


Term

Aldosterone _____.

 

A) is secreted by the neurohypophysis

 

B) functions to increase sodium reabsorption

 

C) presence increases potassium concentration of the blood 

 

D) production is greatly influenced by ACTH

 

Definition
B) functions to increase sodium reabsorption
Term

The only amine hormone to act like a steroid is ___.

 

A) TH

 

B) ACTH

 

C) GH

 

D) ADH

Definition
A) TH (thyroxine, remember both diffuse easily into target cells)
Term

In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the target organ.  This is known as _____.

 

A) the cell's sensitivity reaction

 

B) cellular affinity

 

C) up- regulation

 

D) a reaction to a stressor

Definition
C) up- regulation
Term

Which of the following terms best describes the interactions of glucagon  and insulin?

 

A) synergistic

 

B) permissive

 

C) antagonistic

 

D) cooperative

Definition
C) antagonistic
Term

A man has been told that he is not producing enough follicle- stimulating hormone (FSH), and for this reason he may be unable to father a child.  Choose the correct statement to explain this problem.

 

A) FSH stimulates estrogen secretion by ovarian cells: therefore it is not synthesized by males.

 

B) The physician is wrong, a hormone made in the adenohypophysis could not influence fertlity.

 

C) FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes

 

D) the man must be producing progesterone, which inhibits the synthesis of FSH.

Definition
C) FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes
Term

What ion is sometimes used as a second messenger of amino acid based hormones?

 

A) iron

 

B) calcium

 

C) sodium

 

D) chlorine

Definition
B) calcium
Term

Which of the following hormones uses cAMP as a second messenger?

 

A) testosterone

 

B) cortisol

 

C) epinephrine

 

D) thyroxin

Definition
C) epinephrine
Term

Which of the following hormones regulates plasma calcium levels?

 

A) calcitonin

 

B) oxytocin

 

C) parathyroid hormone

 

D) both A and C

 

E) all of the above

Definition
D) both A and C
Term

Which of the following statements is most correct regarding the intracellular chemical signals known as "second messengers"?

 

A) second messengers act through the receptors called K-proteins

 

B) Second messengers usually inactivate kinase protein enzymes

 

C) cyclic AMP and calcium may be second messengers.

 

D) second messengers usually act to remove nitric oxide (NO) from the cell

 

Definition
C) cyclic AMP and calcium may be second messengers.
Term

Some hormones enter the cells via ____.

 

A) exocytosis

 

B) endocytosis

 

C) pinocytosis

 

D) receptor-mediated endocytosis

Definition
D) receptor-mediated endocytosis
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