Shared Flashcard Set


ELPS General Essays
Comps Exam Essay Practice

Additional Education Flashcards




Discuss three (3) of the skills necessary to facilitate effective communication.
1. Seek first to understand, then to be understood," recommends Stephen Covey
a. ask questions
b. give feedback
c. paraphrase / check perceptions
d. describe behavior
2. Create positive emotional climate
a. Vision
b. humor
c. accessibility
d. team-building
e. genuine praise
3. Use of appropriate technologies
a. time saver
b. outreach
c. transparency
three tasks of the principal that demand expertise each of the following skills: human, technical, conceptual
1. Human
a. communication
b. establishing vision / goals
c. delegating / empowering others
2. technical
a. communication
b. budget expertise
c. legal
3. conceptual
a. curriculum development
b. professional development
c. stakeholder involvement
three sources of conflict in an organization; tell what the supervisor can do to reduce each.
1. Weak leadership
a. establish common goals
b. alternate talk with action
c. establish cycle of reflection
2. Poor communication
a. Communicate honestly
b. Provide data
c. transparency
3. Dissatisfaction with management style
a. focus on goals / issues
b. focus on problem solving
4. Lack of openness
a. open door policy
c. individual, small group, survey input
Discuss the dynamics of the decision-making process re: issues, personnel problems, operational procedures
operational procedures
1. identify the problem / consult data
2. identify stakeholders
3. solicit input
4. weigh alternatives
5. establish a course
6. communicate expectations
7. establish a timeline to evaluate results and consider modification
Define alternative school:
a. why have they come into existence?
b. how are they evaluated?
c. speculate on their future
Charter Schools:
a. originally to provide locally controlled, self-governing educational entity that is free of district mandates to explore innovative methods
b. evaluated by same legal, budgetary statutes and academic achievement
c. as more private entities arise, and laws mandate sharing facilities, erode union teacher rights they will become more financially viable and widespread
a)Identify three greatest causes of public school decline in public esteem, b) discuss how to reverse this trend
a) 3 causes of decline of public regard for public schools:
1. economic flux
2. declining student achievement
3. lack of transparency
b) how to reverse trend
1. collaborate with industry and university to identify needs
2. transparency of accountability
3. public relations about achievements
Six principles of an effective school community relations
1. Goal oriented - district, state initiatives promoted
2. Service Oriented
3. Inclusive of all stakeholders
4. Multiple methods of communication
5. Branding
6. Develop feedback loops for continual improvement
Three most cogent arguments in favor of district-wide testing for “minimum competencies" and (b) why it’s important
1. Accountability - continued public support
2. Social issues - FAPE Constitutional guarantee, workforce preparedness, international competitiveness
3. Instructional Implications - curriculum and teacher preparation
Arguments advanced (a) in support of collective bargaining
(b) in opposition to such bargaining
for public employees
a) arguments for:
1. prevent arbitrary treatment
2. protection of just compensation
3. codify rights and responsibilities
4. rigorous standards for hiring
b) Against
1. protects ineffective employees
2. too costly to provide benefits
3. red tape prevents efficient action
“Pros” and “cons” of requiring "C" average for graduation
1. Higher expectations of students
2. Higher expectations of teachers
3. Students graduate career and college ready
1. Resource intensive
2. Graduation rate will decrease
3. No provisions for alternative education in place at this time
3 Concerns about use of aides
Steps to alleviate concerns
1. appropriate vetting of qualifications
2. Accountability
3. Professional development
Arguments for or against foundations where citizens donate tax-exempt gifts to the schools
1. Legal: Equal access to FAPE
2. Social: Equitable opportunity
3. Logistic: Power over use of funds; accountability, transparency
List three (3) disadvantages of school-based management
R. Neal
1. participatory management is not as efficient as autocratic management
2. increased planning time required
3. increased time commitment by stakeholders (committees)
4. no guarantee of success
Pros and cons of mandatory fine and/or imprisonment for any student assault on a teacher
1. clarify behavioral expectations
2. legally enforced respect for and protection of teachers
3. Increase parents responsibility
4. Free School board to deal school business
1. due process required
2. increase court cases and costs
steps to take to address gang problem: fights, graffiti, gang symbols
(Burch and Kane, 1999)
(1) Mobilize community linkages between organizations
(2) outreach workers engage gang-involved youth
(3) increase access to academic, economic, and social opportunities;
(4) gang suppression activities; hold gang-involved youth accountable;
(5) community oriented policing.
(6) increase feet on the ground
(7) monitor and erase graffiti immediate
Process you would follow to prepare and present report on advantages and disadvantages of School of Choice Proposal
1. Define problem - data
2. Explain School of Choice proposal
3. Project costs / benefits
4. Present legal issues
5. Present alternative solutions?
6. Summarize pros and cons
7. Submit ppt to Superintendent in enough time to get feedback and adjust as necessary
Steps to take in revising and updating Student Discipline Policy
1. Review current policy - find out why Board wants to rewrite it - what are flaws - what are objectives
2. Define timeline / meeting schedule / outline goals and tasks
3. Create and get commitment from a stakeholder task force (representatives from legal, police, social worker, parent, student, teacher, business)
4. organize committees and report dates
5. Identify writing team
6. Submit draft to legal department
7. Submit draft to Board for review
Steps to take in response to vandalism and resulting financial loss
1. Task force to discuss causes and brainstorm solutions
2. Enlist community support - neighborhood watch, cleanup crew, supplies for activities
3. Find ways to use the talent and creativity of vandals in positive, nondestructive activities.
4. Vandalism hotline
5. Increased security
6. Campus beautification / pride
Identify and discuss who determines curriculum content and from whom they derive their authority
1. State Legislature - elected by the people; board of education established by the constitution
2. lobbying / special interest groups - corporate or non-profit legal requirements, profit incentive
3. Faith-based groups - religious doctrine and practice
4. Federal initiatives - legislative, executive
5. Professional educators / researchers - scientific peer-reviewed studies, international consortiums
(a) list the specific steps
(b) explain implementation
of action research to improve student learning
1. Identify the problem
2. Research possible solutions, results obtained by others
3. Formulate a hypothesis including SMART Goals (action to be performed to achieve what goal to be measured how)
4. Devise a timeline
5. Clarify actions, methods of collecting data, minimizing bias, communicating results
6. Obtain permission from parents
7. Perform action over time
8. Collect multiple sources of data
9. Analyze data, draw conclusions, communicate results
Discuss two components of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and how an administrator might respond in affecting change
Components of NCLB:
1. Highly qualified teachers
2. Supplemental services
3. Meet AYP API
Focus on Professional Development
Create Community - internal and external
Parent education, outreach, inclusion
Focus on data - celebrate results
Action research to reflect on strategies and changes implemented
Arguments for and against increase in required courses which decreases options for electives.
Educated literate populace increases democracy, national security, economic opportunity
1. Fewer options
2. Not all students are academics; they need other options for success
3. Could increase dropout rate
Three forces/agencies external to local schools contributing to curriculum change in California
Federal Government: NCLB and Race to the Top
State: Curriculum redesign by governor's consortium
Industry/Chamber of Commerce: Dictate marketplace labor and economic needs
the role of the building principal in bringing about curriculum improvement
LBWA Leadership by walking around.
1. Data
2. Behavior
3. Attendance
4. Realia
are indicators of rigor, relevance, standards-based teaching, and grade level skill development.
If the principal does not see these:
1. build a culture of continual improvement
2. build a diverse collaborative learning community
3. create a professional development committee
4. work with individual struggling teachers
5. focus on standards of teaching and learning that support student achievement
a) three most critical curriculum issues
b) number one issue and how schools should respond
1. School to work / career / life
2. Assessment - testing?
3. Competitive - rigorous?
4. English Learners / Math competency
5. Beliefs and values in education
b) The fact that the US student achievement is falling below other developed countries has spurred curriculum initiatives:
Common Core
Next Generation Science Standards
Integrating technology, engineering into science education
Emphasis on practice, problem solving, innovating, etc
arguments for and against national/federal standards
1. Competitiveness, not externally imposed high bars, increases achievement
2. Common core is too narrow to educate young people for the opportunities of the future (innovation, creativity)
3. States rights - beliefs, values, and competencies vary from state to state
1. Student proficiency varies from state to state - needs to be standardized
2. Important for students to have a solid foundation in the basics from which to create.
3. We must at least attempt to agree on what students should know and be able to do as high school graduates
Parents and citizens attack two textbooks used in science course. Discuss the steps to respond
1. Investigate the book
2. Inquire as to their objections (get it in writing)
3. Create a forum where parents and citizens, teachers, School Board representative can discuss merits and resolve the conflict.
Describe the evaluation and self-evaluation techniques the supervisor might employ in evaluating the following: (a) Himself/herself; (b) the supervisors role; and (c) the school program.
a) evaluate him/her self
B) supervisor's role
C) the school program
Join professional organizations
Read journals to stay current
Invite observation and feedback from boss
Discuss issues with colleagues at principals' meetings
Survey teachers
Have monthly meetings with parents' group
Survey parents
Collaboratively set goals for the school
Report on progress
Set goals
a) three reasons for teacher ineffectiveness
b) actions a supervisor takes to help teachers increase effectiveness
1. content knowledge -
2. lesson planning - knowledge of students abilities, interests, culture - encourage collaboration and discussion
3. Lesson implementation - communication of objectives, delivery, checking for understanding, knowing your students' needs for scaffolding
b) Meet with teacher to discuss and set professional learning goals on a timeline; check in regularly to discuss self-reflection and progress made
1. encourage study, collaboration, workshop attendance, provide articles
2. work with counselor, special ed, bilingual coordinator to help get a handle on students abilities and learning needs;
3. Model lesson delivery, have teacher observe colleagues
3 important aspects of "instructional leadership"
1. Catalyst for learning-focused collegiality (Thomas Hoer, Art of School Leadership)
2. Effective management of resources and humans; analyze data and respond
3. Address diversity
4. Create and model a culture of continual reflection and improvement
two specific practices that contribute to teaching effectiveness; why?
1. Clearly communicate expectations for behavior, effort, performance
2. scaffold material to maximize student learning at each level
Describe a peer coaching program and how you would implement it
Establishes a cycle of observation / reflection between pairs of teachers
Teachers can pair up by:
grade level
content area
small learning community - cross curricular
Establish a timeline by which to do the first observations; document reflection and learning from discussion
Can be used for cross-curricular planning, peer mentoring, resource sharing, action research.
How a principal can use the California Standards for the Teaching Profession to improve instruction among teachers
Teaching and learning framework, 6 domains
• Engaging and Supporting All Students in Learning
• Creating and Maintaining Effective Environments for Student Learning
• Understanding and Organizing Subject Matter for Student Learning
• Planning Instruction and Designing Learning Experiences for All Students
• Assessing Student Learning
• Developing as a Professional Educator
The TLF is organized into standards, components and elements, which are arranged into a rubric.
Reference the framework in pre-observation conference; teacher identifies the target elements for several standards; observe those behaviors during observations; meet to reflect and discuss; set new goal for next round of observations. Support teacher to be self-reflective and to take responsibility for culture of continual improvement.
Describe three different approaches in Developmental Supervision and rationale for each.
Model differentiation of instruction by using different methods depending on the developmental level of the teacher.
1. non-directive: for accomplished teachers who can survive, are able to think about students', teachers' and the community's needs. Listen, support, encourage
2. collaborative: for teacher who is enthusiastic and learning; brainstorm together about what would create improved student achievement
3. directive: for struggling teacher; model or have them observe a model teacher; discuss; set timeline for specific changes; monitor results; begin again
five most critical “areas of competence” explain the reasons why
1. Leadership - because you have the responsibility to get the staff to cooperate, work hard, enjoy their work, be supported, subscribe to a common vision...all to support student achievement
2. Communication - the tools you need to inspire and involve all stakeholders; to support them in being the best they can be; to coordinate efforts and help everyone be on the same page
3. Technology - the tools you put in service of communication between you and stakeholders; including newsletter, website, faculty handbook, collaborative scheduling (email), social media, networking, and to model the effective use of technology in 21st Century learning.
4. Law / Business - So that the school is financially solvent and fiscally responsible; books are in order for any audit; and understanding the law means understanding your legal responsibilities for your school, your students, your teachers, the grounds, your relationship with the board of education. The law is structured to support Free and Appropriate Education, equal opportunity for all; you want to follow its requirements. Also, liability issues. Safety and cleanliness are your first responsibilities as a principal; your duty to the students and community.
5. Curriculum and Instruction - this is the crux of the educational program, this is also dictated by law but as a supervisor you must model instructional excellence to be an instructional leader.... all in support of student achievement.
Steps you would take to establish new district's school climate to encourage change and innovation.
explain why each step is important.
1. Familiarity: learn the neighborhood--its social, financial, cultural issues. Go out, and Invite people in.
2. Foster the development of a common vision: Have focus groups that consist of community members, parents, teachers, students (if a secondary school), industry leaders, college representatives
3. Form committees to address the main functions of a community partnership - parents, communication, home learning, curriculum, finance, resources outreach, cultural development -- to meet and make recommendations
4. Set goals - aim for those goals, celebrate progress
5. Develop a continuing cycle
factors operating in favor of large districts
factors which make decentralization desirable
economy of scale - improved purchasing power, state aid increases for capital projects, can result in higher student achievement, more colleagues to collaborate with and generate good ideas for teaching and learning
increased transportation costs
loss of "small town" feel, less access to district administration, policy and less teacher contact
In summary, it appears that very small districts merging provides the greatest benefits with the least costs. Larger district have bureaucracy that makes change difficult, access difficult, less personalization.
steps necessary to establish a full inclusion program for special needs students in your school
1. Analyze IEPs; refer to goals and needs for each child
2. Determine costs and benefits of establishing full inclusion
2. Establish communication between stakeholders - special ed teachers, parents, general ed teachers to discuss the reasons for considering a change
3. Identify additional resources that will be required (classroom aides, mobile technology assistance, etc) and secure funding
4. Pilot test the program with a small group of students to obtain data about effectiveness
5. Make adjustments to procedures as indicated
6. Expand the program gradually
Discuss issues involved in going from a A) (K-6)-(7-9)-(10-12)-configuration to a B) (K-5)-(6-8)-(9-12) organizational plan.
1. Developmental needs
2. transportation schedule changes
3. Identify costs and benefits
4. Building capacity
5. 9th grade is considered high school for college applications
three most compelling reasons for decline in high school graduation, and how a district could reverse the trend in each of the three areas
1. Economy - budget cuts--> decline in infrastructure and resources; increase in employee costs = less educational opportunity for students
How to Reverse:
* form mutually beneficial partnerships with community, educational, and business institutions that increase educational opportunities for students

2. Mass Cultural disdain for education
* Recruit cultural icons to speak out for and support the value of education
3. Curriculum, instruction, and policy is out of date when compared to knowledge available through digital means
* Analyze and revise curriculum to make it relevant to the 21st century; research, form alliances with colleges, chamber of commerce, professional organizations to clarify what students should be able to know and do. Professional development for teachers should emphasize teaching the student, differentiating instruction, character development...
Steps required in establishing full inclusion program for special needs students in your school
Inventory special Ed students' skill sets, proficiency levels, special needs, accommodations.
Categorize students from most difficult to easiest to accommodate.
Survey resources available, including teachers with greatest inclusion
Form a committee to discuss rationale and goals for inclusion
List benefits and risks
Recruit teachers who are willing to include students with special needs, goal is to match students with teachers and classes that will best facilitate success win/win for all.
Schedule IEPS meetings to revise IEPs as necessary.
Launch the schedule change, perhaps in stages so students are not overwhelmed by the change.
Monitor results and needs arising as the plan rolls out.
Graduation rate has declined quite substantially.
three most compelling reasons for this decline
how to reverse the trend
1. Economic downturn - has resulted in financial hardship for many families. Students have to work to help families survive. Poverty increase decreases student preparedness.
Allow students more time to learn. Set boundaries around their learning time. Have a community meeting to address the trend and brainstorm what can be done.
2. Austerity budgeting - larger classrooms, fewer necessary and supplemental resources, less individual attention to students who are already ill-prepared to learn.
Seek classroom management strategies to support teachers and students. Creative scheduling. Maximize resources. Recruit volunteers from community, local university, alumni. Create a meaningful volunteer program that remains focused. Include volunteers in planning, training, implementation, assessment stages.
3. World trade - job scarcity because manufacturing and many service jobs are going overseas. In search of profit, companies hire fewer employees.
Initiate an entrepreneurship culture, a local economy culture. Cultivate student awareness of environment, health, and Interconnectivity to motivate local resourcefulness.
Prepare a paper on the duties and responsibilities of a principal in The Role of the Principal in Enhancing the Instructional Process.
1. All students must have a safe clean environment that supports their learning : physical plant maintenance and operations, classroom management behavioral practices
2. Teach citizenship and community habits of trust, communication, set ambitious, achievable goals, common goals, collaboration, reflection, improvement
3. Engage and include all stakeholders to be part of the community
4. District and state initiatives plus local interests and needs
5. Teaching and learning professional focus that celebrates and maximizes skills, talents and interests of faculty.
Describe four criteria that you, as a school principal, would employ in determining what should and what should not be delegated.
Is the matter confidential?
Is it beyond the scope of duty?
Does the person have the motivation to tackle the task and see it through? Will the person or persons benefit in professional growth by having the opportunity to do this task?
Are my energies better used elsewhere?
Is the task something that we can approach as a team? For example, if I want to build the capacity of my assistant principals to become instructional leaders I might divide up the work of observing teachers during instructional time, and then come back together to discuss what we observe, what patterns exist, and what improvements can we suggest?
If there is going to be a Family event, I could delegate the planning and logistics to a team of teachers and or coordinators to plan it.
Anything I see as my primary responsibility I would not delegate. Items that are add-ons I would delegate.
Tasks that entail liability should not be delegated.
Tasks that entail volatility should not be delegated.
Tasks that entail confidentiality should not be delegated.
how you, would promote maximum participation of the school staff in the decision making process
I want to find out how my staff feels and thinks about the decision to be made. I want their opinion to be based on what they think is for the students' benefit.
Informal conversation.
Identify those staff members that everyone respects and listens to.
Design and administer a short Survey.
In my weekly newsletter I would write about the decision being faced and invite input.
The superintendent has requested that both new principals individually submit a plan for articulation and then later both will meet to form and agree on the plan to be implemented. Prepare your plan.
Four major principles of IDEA.
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) - inclusion in the general ed classroom to the greatest extent possible unless they cannot receive FAPE in the general ed classroom.
Due Process - rights of children and their parents are protected. Parent consent for procedures such as testing and placement.
Zero Rejection - no student can be turned away from public education regardless of their disability
FAPE - free and appropriate public education
Nondiscriminatory Identification and Evaluation - multifactored methods of evaluation
As principal of a new school how would you proceed in establishing an effective school-community relations program.
1. Walk the neighborhood, community, and businesses.
2. Go to neighborhood council and chamber of commerce meetings to introduce myself
2a. find out if there is a parent community liaison from the district assigned to the school.
3. Honor what has been done before, particularly if the previous principal was successful, and inquire into what the principal did.
4. Meet with faculty and staff individually to find out the history of the school, the goals of the personnel working there, and begin to build an inclusive network.
5. Identify the vision and mission of the school through these meetings, (and with parents).
6. Once the mission and vision becomes shared, introduce yourself to the community by starting a newsletter, a blog or by creating a dynamic presence on the school website. In other words, establish some kind of communication organ to begin the dialog and enter into a mutually beneficial relationship.
Discuss what components go into the development of a quality orientation program for new teachers at a school.
Handbook that contains district policies, bulletins, school policies and bulletins; map of the school
Mission / Vision / Data
Share Values and beliefs
Complementary lanyard for keys; t-shirt
Give the teacher a treasure hunt--common places he/she should know the location of; walk them around; introduce to other teachers and staff.
Point out the resources available.
Assign new teachers a mentor / buddy with whom they can talk, get support and ideas, begin to form social relationships.
present how you would develop a shared vision statement and what you would need to do to ensure that it relates to the shared vision
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