# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Electricity and Electrical Safety
Instrumentation and Electroacoustics
55
Audiology
02/05/2017

Term
 -Nonzero charge-polarized-___ number of electrons vs protons.-Quantified degree of polarization=___. Positively charged and negatively charged bodies ___ to each other; force that causes a body to attract to each other. -Unit measure of charge is the ___.
Definition
 different; charge; attract; coulomb
Term
 ___ ___-hypothetical process by which electrons fill shells starting with the innermost shell first, then moving outward to the next when inner shells are full
Definition
 Aufbau Principle
Term
 motion of charge of particles from point to point is called a ___. This concept was described by Andre Marie ___. Measure for current is an ___. Symbolized as the letter __.
Definition
 current; Ampere; ampere (amp); I
Term
 -In direct current (DC), the electric charge (current) only flows in ___ direction. Electric charge in alternating current (AC), on the other hand, ___ direction periodically. The voltage in AC circuits also periodically ___ because the current changes direction.-Both of these can be harnessed for power -Audiology uses both of these types-hearing aids uses DC and Audiometer uses AC
Definition
 one; changes; reverses
Term
 an electromotive force or potential difference expressed in ___. ___ energy of each unit of charge. Potential energy to be ___ from current flow
Definition
 volts; Potential; harnessed
Term
 As current goes up ___ goes up. __ for voltage, sometimes __.
Definition
 voltage; V; E
Term
 If there is a greater different in height (or charge) then there is going to be more ___ for the water (energy) to move
Definition
 pressure
Term
 Conventional flow of electric current, as distinct from electron flow, is stated as being in the ___ direction
Definition
 opposite
Term
 -resistance to flow; analogous to ___; prevents ___; The more resistance the ___ energy there is in the circuit -Resistance works in opposition to ___ and ___-Measured in ___-omega symbol
Definition
 friction; movement; less; current and voltage; ohms
Term
 -___ is the rate per unit time that a unit of energy is transferred by a circuit -is a function of ___ and ___-Measured in ___
Definition
 Power; current and voltage; watts (W)
Term
 The Water Pipe Analogy:-___: the height of the tower / water pressure -___: the rate of water flow -___: the ability of the water to flow. Narrow pipe = ___ rate of flow =___ resistance. Wide pipe =___ rate of flow =___ resistance -___: the combination of water pressure (voltage) andrate of flow (current) that results in the ability to do work
Definition
 Voltage; Current; Resistance; low; high; high; low; Power
Term
 -current and resistance are ___ related-The resistance and current capacity of a given wire are related to several characteristics of that wire, including ___, length, ___, and material composition
Definition
 inversely; temperature; diameter
Term
 when any two of the four quantities are known, the other two can be derived
Definition
 Ohm's law
Term
 What are the equations for ohm's, volts, amps, and watts?
Definition
 -Ohms = Volts / Amps -Volts = Amps x Ohms -Amps = Volts / Ohms -Watts = Volts x Amps
Term
 a pathway along which electrical current flows
Definition
 circuit
Term
 -an electrical current requires a ___ pathway for electrons to flow-Circuits have to be ___ in order to have a flow of electricity
Definition
 complete; closed
Term
 an electrochemical cell
Definition
 battery
Term
 Battery: -Uses chemical energy to create ___ energy (voltage) for circuits -Voltage is measured between the ___ and ___ terminals of the battery -Single-cell batteries • Batteries for hearing aids, cameras, watches – Multiple-cell batteries • Batteries for automobiles, lanterns, many electronics (i.e., 9-volt batteries)
Definition
 potential; positive (+); negative (-)
Term
 Battery: voltage is determined by the ___ of the cell
Definition
 chemistry
Term
 a material that allows easy flow of electricity (has low resistance)
Definition
 Conductor
Term
 What kind of materials are conductors made out of?
Definition
 Copper, silver, and aluminum
Term
 a material that impedes flow of electricity (has high resistance)
Definition
 insulator
Term
 What are some insulator materials?
Definition
 glass, rubber, wood, and ceramics
Term
 a material that allows flow of electricity only under certain conditions
Definition
 semiconductor
Term
 What are some semiconductor materials?
Definition
 silicon
Term
 Silicon conducts well when small amounts of other elements such as ___ or ___ are added to it
Definition
 boron; arsenic
Term
 -AC currents cause the heart to ___ which is an abnormal rhythm of your heart -Electrical current always seeks the path of least resistance to the ___ and moves almost ___
Definition
 fibrillate; ground; instantaneously
Term
 -Electricity travels in ___ circuits, typically through a ____ -Shock results when the body becomes part of the ___ ___ (current enters the body at one point and leaves at another)
Definition
 closed; conductor; electrical circuit
Term
 Measures the electrical potential difference between two points in an electric circuit
Definition
 Voltmeter
Term
 Voltmeter:-Can be used to measure the voltage ___ from an electrical device -Can be used to determine the ___ of electrical problems
Definition
 output; location
Term
 A ___ combines multiple functions into a single handheld device
Definition
 multimeter
Term
 -The ungrounded conductors, or “___” wires, maybe any color other than green, white, or gray. They are usually ___ or ___.-A hot wire usually comes from AC voltage source at ___ V
Definition
 hot; black; red; 120
Term
 -The neutral wire will lead to the ___-Neutral and ground come from a termination point that goes to ___, such as a copper rod driven into the ___ or a cold ___ ___
Definition
 ground; ground; earth; water pipe
Term
 -Hot and neutral wires make a circuit to provide ___ across the circuit plugged in-These two wires always must be ___ from one another
Definition
 voltage; insulated
Term
 ___ ___ is where the neutral and hot wire touch and the electricity goes straight to the ground
Definition
 short circuit
Term
Definition
 fuse and circuit breakers
Term
 -Fuse and circuit breakers automatically ___ ___ the electrical current if it exceeds safe levels -___: breaks/opens and must be replaced -___ ___: “trips” and can be reset
Definition
 cut off; Fuse; Circuit breaker
Term
 -If a circuit breaker is being tripped ___ or a fuse must constantly be ___, it means that too much current is being drawn by the devices in the circuit-Devices should be removed and ___ for short circuits orother malfunction
Definition
 repeatedly; replaced; checked
Term
 Danger signs: burning ___ or ___, ___ outlets or switches, ___ wires
Definition
 odor; warmth; discolored; exposed
Term
 Grounding: ground wire (3rd wire; 3rd prong)-runs to ___ ___ that runs to the ___; purpose is to provide a ___ path in the event that the device malfunctions
Definition
 metal pipe ; ground; return
Term
 Path for excess current to be carried away
Definition
 grounding
Term
 Ground:-Definition 1: the ___ point in an electrical circuit from which other voltages are measured -Definition 2: the “___ ___” for electrical current to reach the earth
Definition
 reference; return path
Term
 Power strips...-Must have an internal ___ ___ (Prevents overloading, overheating, and shorts)–Must have a ___ (not metal) external casing –Must not have a ___ or otherwise ___ cord –Must always have a ___ plug (one blade larger than theother) or a ___-___ ground plug-Must not have a cord longer than ___ feet in length unless classified as an extension cord with power strip
Definition
 circuit breaker; plastic; frayed; compromised; polarized; three-prong; 6
Term
 What is the most common injury due to electrical shock?
Definition
 electrical burns
Term
 electrical burns...-Result from heat generated by the ___ of electric current-are a serious injury and require ___ medical attention
Definition
 flow; immediate
Term
 high temperatures near the body produced by an electric arc orexplosion
Definition
 arc or flash burns
Term
 skin comes in contact with overheated electric equipment,or clothing is ignited in an electrical incident
Definition
 thermal contact burns
Term
 High levels of electrical current flowing through the body can damage internal organs: ___ (internal bleeding), ___ damage, ___ damage, and ___ damage
Definition
 hemorrhage; tissue; nerve; muscle
Term
 -Normal muscle contraction is caused by small ___ currents within the body -Large electrical currents can cause violent muscle ___*Soft tissue damage – ___, ___, and ___*Broken ___ *___*Hand muscle contractions may prevent ___ an electrocuting object
Definition
 electrical; contractions; muscles, tendons, ligaments ; bones; Falls; releasing
Term
 How many amps does it take to feel these things?-Perception level. Just a faint tingle. -Slight shock felt; not painful but disturbing. Average individual can let go.-Painful shock, muscular control is lost.-This is called the freezing current or "let-go" range. -Extreme pain, respiratory arrest, severe muscular contractions.-Ventricular fibrillation. -Cardiac arrest, severe burns and probable death.
Definition
 .001, .005, .006-.025; .009-.030; .050-.150; 1-4.3; 10
Term
 -When human skin is dry it is ___-current=volts/ohms=120/100,000=__ mA (.001 A)-___ perceptible level of current
Definition
 resistant; 1; Barely
Term
 -When human skin is wet the resistance ___ dramatically-current=volts/ohms=120/1,000=___ mA (.12A)-Sufficient current to cause ___ ___
Definition
 drops; 120; ventricular fibrillation
Term
 A low voltage electrocution becomes much more hazardous in ___ conditions
Definition
 wet
Term
 -Muscular contraction caused by electrocution may notallow an individual to ___ him/herself from the circuit -The degree of injury increases as a function of the ___ the body is in the circuit.-Thus even relatively ___ voltages can be extremelydangerous.-An exposure of 100mA for 3 seconds can cause the ___ amount of damage as an exposure of 900mA for .03 seconds
Definition
 free; time; low; same
Term
 Good practices:-Visually ___ all electrical equipment before use.-Remove any equipment with ___ cords, missing ___ prongs, ___ tool casings, etc. from service.-Apply a ___ ___ to any defective equipment and do not use it until it has been properly repaired.
Definition
 inspect; frayed; ground ;cracked; warning tag
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