# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

EKG
general
46
Other
03/14/2010

Term
Definition
Term
Definition
Term
Definition
Term
Definition
 V2, V3, V4
Term
 P wave
Definition
 atrial depolarizationright first halfleft second half< 2.5 mm high< 0.12 sec in duration+ in Lead I, aVL, II, aVF, V5, V6biphasic in III and V1- in aVR
Term
 QRS complex
Definition
 ventricular depolarization
Term
 T wave
Definition
 ventricular repolarization+ in leads with large, + R waves
Term
 How long should the QRS interval be?
Definition
 0.06 - 0.1 secs
Term
 How long should PR interval be?
Definition
 0.12 - 0.2 sec
Term
 How do you find the rate from an EKG?
Definition
 1. Count boxes between R waves - 300/# of boxes2. Count # of cycles in 6 secs and multiply by 10
Term
 What results in a positive wave on an EKG?
Definition
 A wave of depolarization moving toward an electrode or a wave of repolarization moving away from an electrode
Term
 Explain Einthoven's Triangle
Definition
Term
Definition
Term
 Q wave
Definition
 I and aVLQ waves are negative
Term
 Explain R wave progression.
Definition
 V1 -V3 to V4 transitionV5 largest R waveV6 slightly smaller
Term
 J point
Definition
 where QRS complex joins ST segment
Term
 Assess QRS axis
Definition
 Look at Lead I and aVFLead I + is -90 to 90aVF + is 0 to 180Both + is 0 to 90Look for biphasic wave - 90 from that
Term
 Right axis deviation
Definition
 between 90 and 180+ aVF- Lead I
Term
 Left axis deviation
Definition
 between 0 and -90Lead I +aVF -
Term
 extreme right axis deviation
Definition
 between -90 and 180Lead I -aVF -
Term
 Causes of right axis deviation
Definition
 deep inspirationstandingtall, lanky body habitusright ventricular hypertrophy - pulmonary hypertension - congenital heart diseasemyocardial infarction of left ventricleacute pulmonary embolism
Term
 Causes of left axis deviation
Definition
 Left ventricular hypertrophyexpirationlaying downobesity
Term
 P wave axis
Definition
 between 0 and 70
Term
 Assessment of atrial enlargement
Definition
 Look at Lead II and V1increased amplitude or increased duration
Term
 Causes of Right atrial enlargement
Definition
 Usually associated with r. ventricular enlargementPulmonary disease- asthma, pulm embolism, COPDCongenital heart disease - pulmonic valve stenosis, atrial septal defect, Ebstein's anomoly, tetralogy of Fallot
Term
 Causes of left atrial enlargement
Definition
 Valvular heart disease - aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, mitral regurgitation, mitral stenosisHypertensive heart diseaseCardiomyopathiesCoronary artery disease
Term
 Diagnostic criteria for R. ventricular hypertrophy
Definition
 Right axis deviation > 100In lead V1, the R wave > S waveIn lead V6, the S wave > R wave
Term
 Causes of R. ventricular hypertrophy
Definition
 Congenital heart disease - pulmonic stenosis, atrial septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, Eisenmenger's syndromePulmonary diseasePulmonary artery hypertensionPulmonary embolism
Term
 Diagnostic criteria for L ventricular hypertophy
Definition
 Precordial leads more sensitive than limb leadsR wave in V5 or V6 + S wave in V1 or V2 exceeds 35 mmR wave in V5 exceeds 26 mmR wave in V6 exceeds 18 mmR wave in V6 exceeds the R wave in V5R wave in aVL exceeds 13 mmR wave in aVF exceeds 21 mm (Ms. J disagrees)R wave in Lead I exceeds 14 mmR wave in Lead I + S wave in Lead III exceeds 25
Term
 Repolarization abnormalities
Definition
 Down-sloping of ST segmentV1 and V2 for right ventricleLead I, aVL, V5, V6 for left ventricle
Term
 Arrhythmia clinical manifestations
Definition
 palpitationspresyncope or syncopeanginacongestive heart failuresudden death
Term
 Causes of arrhythmias
Definition
 HIS DEBSHypoxiaIschemia and irritabilitySympathetic stimulationDrugsElectrolyte disturbancesBradycardiaStretch
Term
 Rhythm strip
Definition
 Lead IIHolter monitorCell phone based monitorimplanted event recorder
Term
 Carotid massage
Definition
 stimulates vagal inputright stimulates SA nodeleft stimulates AV nodeused to slow arrhythmia
Term
 Five basic types of arrhythmias
Definition
 1. arrhythmias of sinus origin2. ectopic rhythms3. reentrant arrhythmias4. conduction blocks5. preexcitation syndromes
Term
 The 4 Arrythmia Questions
Definition
 1. Are normal P waves present?2. Are the QRS complexes narrow or wide?3. What is the relationship between the P waves and QRS complexes?4. Is the rhythm regular or irregular?
Term
 Arrythmias of Sinus Origin
Definition
Term
 Sinus tachycardia
Definition
 rate exceeding 100 bpmcauses: anxiety, pain, drugs, fever, infections, pulmonary embolism, acute MI, hyperthyroidism, pheochromocytoma, intravascular volume loss, alcohol intoxication or withdrawal
Term
Definition
 less than 60 cpmCauses: normal variant, drugs, hypthyroidism, hyperkalemia, sick sinus syndrome, sleep apnea syndromes, carotid sinus hypersensitivity syndrome, vasovagal reaction
Term
 Sinus arrhythmia
Definition
 slight beat-to-beat variationcommon in young adultschanges in vagal tone that occur during respiration
Term
 sinus arrest
Definition
 causes: hypoxemia, myocardial ishcemia or infarction, hyperkalemia, diitalis toxicity, vagal hyperactivityEscape beats may come from atria, AV node, or ventriclesAsystole - prolonged electrical inactivity
Term
 atrial pacemaker rate
Definition
 60-75 beats
Term
 junctional pacemaker rate
Definition
 40-60 bpmmost commoncauses retrograde P waves
Term
 ventricular pacemaker rate
Definition
 30-45 bpm
Term
 Ectopic rhythm
Definition
 sustained rhythm coming from outside SA nodecauses: digitalis toxicity, beta adrenergic meds for asthma or COPD
Term
 Reentrant rhythms
Definition
Supporting users have an ad free experience!