# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

EDAC Study Guide 2
Glossary of Terms
63
Health Care
Professional
10/22/2010

Term
Definition
 Rooms that provide healthcare that swing from acute care to critical care, thus reducing patient transfers.
Term
 Before-after study
Definition
 A study that measures outcomes by comparing data collected before an intervention with those collected after an intervention is put in place.  By comparing data, researchers can tell whether the intervention is effective in improving outcomes.
Term
 Boolean logic
Definition
 A study using operator words to formulate queries for building search strings.  This form of logic is based on binary logic and can be used to search most full-text search engines as well as subject directories.
Term
 Case study
Definition
 Involves in-depth investigation of one or several cases:  individuals, units, or projects.  In a case study, researchers use mulitle quanititative or qualitative methods.  Multiple methods are used to collect extensive data of one case or several cases.
Term
 Chi-square
Definition
 A statistical test used to determine the liklihood that an observed variation from the anticipated outcome occurs soley by chance.
Term
 Clinical outcomes
Definition
 Observable signs and symptons relating to the patients' health conditions such as morality, morbidity and infection rates.
Term
 Confounding Variables
Definition
 Extraneous variables not under the control of the experimenter that vary systematically fromthe independent variable making it difficult to isolate cause and effect.
Term
 Correlational coefficient
Definition
 Measures the direction and strength of the relationship between two variable.  A positive value indicates positive correlation, and a negative number indicates a negative correlation.  The values are between -1 and +1 and the cloer the correlational coefficient is to -1 or +1, the stronger the correlation.
Term
 Correlational study
Definition
 Two or more characteristics or variables of reserach subjects that are collected and examined to see if the differences in one variable are related to the differences in other variables.
Term
 Descriptive statistics
Definition
 Summarize the numerical data in meaningful ways.  Various descriptive statistics can be used depending on the type of measurement scale.
Term
 Economic outcomes
Definition
 Results of an action(s) pertaining to the finances of a hospital or health system (e.g. the cost of patient care, staff turn over, and philanthropy to the hospital).
Term
 Environmental psychology
Definition
 An interdisciplinary field focused on the interaction between humans and their surroundings.
Term
 Environmental variables
Definition
 The variables involved in the physical environment.  research focuses on one or two environmental variables that are easily quanitifiable such as noise level, room size, patient bed distance and lighting levels.
Term
 Ethnographic study
Definition
 An example of qualitative research; focuses on a group of people who share a common culture.  It gathers in-depth data related to patterns of interpretation and is particularly helpful in understanding a complex working situation.
Term
 Experiential knowledge
Definition
 Knowledge gained through experience as poosed to prior knowledge.
Term
 Expert experiential knowledge
Definition
 Experiential knowledge held by stakeholder groups involved in the project due to their professional qualifications.
Term
 Federated search technology
Definition
 The simultaneous search of multiple online databases; an emerging feature and is often referred to as a portal instead of web-based search.
Term
 Healing environment
Definition
 Nurturing, therapeutic, and stress-free environments that promote wellness.
Term
 Hierarchical databases
Definition
 A database structured in hierarchy format.  All data starts at the top of the hierarchy and moves its way down.
Term
 Hypothesis
Definition
 A tentative assumption made in order to draw out and test its logical or empirical conclusions.
Term
 Infection rates
Definition
 The rate or chance at which patients acquire infections while in a healthcare facility that are caused by the facility or people in the facility.
Term
 Inferential statistics
Definition
 Statistics that go beyond descriptive statistics and extend the conclusion to more general conditions and can be used to determine whether the differences or correlations found in a study represent true differences between groups or whether they happened by chance.
Term
 Informatics
Definition
 Gathering and managing information through the use of computer science and statistical methods.
Term
 Institutional Review Board (IRB)
Definition
 A group that approves studies proposed by investigators involving human subjects.   All clinical trials, by law, must be approved by the IRB prior to enrolling participants.
Term
 Interdisciplinary approach
Definition
 Approach involving two or more disciplines; can maximize the outcome associated with the implementation of the EBD process by providing expertise into as many areas of a project as possible.
Term
 Interdisciplinary research team
Definition
 Team composed of people representing two or more disciples created in order to provide expertise into as many areas of a project as possible and therefore, maximizing outcomes associated with the implementation of the EBD process.
Term
 Journal publication
Definition
 Periodical or individual articles within a publication dealing with matters of current interest or research.
Term
 Just-in-time study
Definition
 Quick research done to inform decision making critical to time-sensitive healthcare building projects with a set deadline.
Term
 Likert scale
Definition
 A research tool, a list of statements (i.e. items) to which respondents indicate their extent of agreement or disagreement on several ordered levels (i.e. points).
Term
 Literature review
Definition
 A comprehensive survey of available information related to a particular line of research.
Term
Definition
 A technique used by the open archives initiative; used to facilitate the understanding, use, and management of data.
Term
 Mixed Method Approach
Definition
 Adopts methods from both qualitative and quantitative research methods in order to understand and research problems.
Term
 Nominal Scales
Definition
 Scales that classify data into mutually exclusive categories and arbitrarily assign a number to represent each catergory.  The number does not indicate any quantity or value.
Term
 Null Hypothesis
Definition
 Suggests that the differences and relationships found in the date are due to chance alone.
Term
 Online Journals
Definition
 Publications only published on the internet.
Term
 Open Archive Initiatives
Definition
 Develops and promotes interoperability standards that aim to facilitate the efficient dissemination of content
Term
 Operationalization
Definition
 The process of defining a fuzzy concept to allow them to be measured empirically and quantitatively.
Term
 Ordinal Scales
Definition
 Scales that classify data into several discrete ranks and assign values to the data according to the ranking order.
Term
 P value
Definition
 A statistical test result presented by computer software. the p-value indicates how likely the test statistic would be as extreme as what is calculated from the collected data given that the null hypothesis is true.
Term
 Peer reviewed journal
Definition
 a scholarly periodical that requires each article submitted for publication be judged by an independant panel of experts.
Term
Definition
 publications that are specific to a trade or profession
Term
 Prospective Study
Definition
 A study looking forward in time and usually includes a research plan before outcome data are collected.  Most studies related to EBD are prospective studies
Term
 Qualitative approach
Definition
 The systematic investigation of properties and their relationships that cannot be measured quantitatively; also called the constructivist approach and emphasizes multiple participant views and theory generation.  The goal of qualitative research is to understand the complexity of the topics under study.
Term
 Quality of Life
Definition
 Refers to the patient's ability to enjoy normal life activities or comfort.  While in healthcare facilities, quality of life generally refers to providing high standard of comfort and existence within the facility.
Term
 Quantiative Approach
Definition
 the systematic, scientific investigation of measureable properties and phenomena and their relationships; also called the traditional or positive approach and emphasizes empirical measurements and theory verification.  The goal of quantitative research is to explain and predict phenomena by examining the relationships between empirically measured variables and to generalize findings and contribute to theory in which significant efforts are given to justify cause-effect relationships.
Term
 Quasi-Experiment
Definition
 Refers to a kind of research similar to true experiments, but lackes the rigorous control usually found in experiments.
Term
 Randomized control trials
Definition
 Quantitative, comparative, controlled experiments in which researchers study two or more interventions in a series of persons who receive them in a random order.
Term
 Range
Definition
 The difference between the highest and lowest values in the data.
Term
 Relational Databases
Definition
 A database that maintains a separate set of related files or tables, but combines them when necessary.
Term
 Reliability
Definition
 The degree to which a measurement tool produces consistent or similar results on the same phenomenon at different times or when used by difficult people.
Term
 Research Designs
Definition
 A plans for gathering and utilizing data to obtain desired information do that a hypothesis can be tested properly.
Term
 Research Plan
Definition
 Delineates each aspect of the research study in detail and includes the primary documents required for approval by the research commmittee, funding agencies or other authorities.
Term
 Retrospective Study
Definition
 A retrospective study looks back in time and examines existing datat to find the cause of certain outcomes.
Term
 Same handed patient rooms
Definition
 A design intervention that provides consistent orientation or position of all the elements in a patient room (eg, door, bed, headwall, footwall, toilet, shower).
Term
 SAS (statistical analysis system)
Definition
 A compture software program that works to access, manage, analyze and report data.
Term
 Semi-Structured Interview
Definition
 A flexible set of questions that makes allowances for the repsonses of the interviewee.  The interviewer will have a structure of themes to be addressed during the interview.
Term
 Sharepoint
Definition
 A microsoft brand of software that enables a website to provide document and information sharing in a central location on a website.
Term
 SPSS Software
Definition
 Stans for Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and is a compture program used for statistical analysis.
Term
 Standard Deviation
Definition
 A more complicated statistic and measuers how data cluster around the mean.  A high value of standard deviation incluldes wide dispersion of data.
Term
 Triangulation
Definition
 The application and combination of several search methodologies in a study of the same topic. t-test:  Shows if a real difference occurs among treatments in controlled clinical trials.
Term
 Type 1 error
Definition
 The chance of accepting the research hypothesis when the null hypothesis is actually true (false positive).
Term
 User experiential knowledge
Definition
 Information acquired from the central user groups(e.g., patitents, residents, families) on their experience.
Term
 Validity
Definition
 The extent to which a measurement tool measures what it is supposed to measure.
Supporting users have an ad free experience!