# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Earthquakes
N/A
11
Environmental Studies
11/17/2012

Term
 What is an Earthquake?
Definition
 Used to describe both sudden slip on a fault, and the resulting ground shaking and radiated seismic energy caused by the slip. Caused by volcanic or magamitic activity. Caused by other sudden stress changes in the Earth.
Term
 What are the 3 types of faults and definitions?
Definition
 Strike Slip- causes worst earthquakes (transform) Thrust- hit each other and one goes under (convergent) Normal- pull away (divergent)
Term
 What causes earthquakes?
Definition
 Tectonic plates move past each other causing stress. Stress causes the rock to deform.
Term
 What are the Plastic and Elastic Deformation definitions?
Definition
 Plastic Deformation- does not cause earthquakes. Elastic Deformation- rock stretches then reaches a breaking point, releasing energy.
Term
 Elastic Rebound
Definition
 Deformed rock goes back to its original shape.
Term
 Focus and Epicenter definitions
Definition
 Focus- point inside the Earth where an earthquake begins. Epicenter- point on Earth's surface above focus.
Term
 Primary Waves (P waves)
Definition
 A type of seismic waves that compresses and expands the ground. The first wave to arrive from an earthquake. (pushing slinky forward)
Term
 Secondary waves (S waves)
Definition
 A type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side. (shaking a jump rope)
Term
 Comparing P waves and S waves
Definition
 [image]
Term
 Surface Waves
Definition
 Move along Earth's surface. Produces motion in the upper crust.    -Motion can be up & down    -Motion can be around    -Motion can be back & forth Travel more slowly. More destructive.
Term
 How do Scientists calculate how far a location is from the epicenter of an earthquake?
Definition
 Scientists calculate the difference between arrival times of the P waves and S waves. The further away an earthquake is, the greater the time between the arrival of the P waves and the S waves.
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