Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Earthquake Vocabulary /Study guide
WTR Mr. Prisco Earth Chapters 1&2
46
Science
03/03/2015

Term
 earthquake
Definition
 the shaking that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface
Term
 stress
Definition
 a force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume
Term
 shearing
Definition
 stress that pushes a mass of rock in opposite directions
Term
 tension
Definition
 stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle
Term
 compression
Definition
 stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks
Term
 deformation
Definition
 a change in the volume or shape of Earth's crust
Term
 fault
Definition
 a break in Earth's crust where slabs of rock slip past each other
Term
 strike-slip fault
Definition
 a type of fault where rocks on either side move past each other sideways with little up-or-down motion
Term
 normal fault
Definition
 a type of fault where the hanging wall slides downward; caused by tension in the crust
Term
 reverse fault
Definition
 a type of fault where the hanging wall slides upward
Term
 folds
Definition
 a bend in rock that forms where part of Earth's crust is compressed
Term
 anticline
Definition
 an upward fold in rock formed by compression of Earth's crust
Term
 syncline
Definition
 a downward fold in rock formed by compression in Earth's crust
Term
 focus
Definition
 the point beneath Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and causes an earthquake
Term
 epicenter
Definition
 the point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus
Term
 seismic waves
Definition
 a vibration that travels through the Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake
Term
 P waves
Definition
 a type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground
Term
 S waves
Definition
 A type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side.
Term
 surface waves
Definition
 a type of seismic wave that forms when P waves and S waves reach Earth's surface
Term
 seismograph
Definition
 a device that records ground movements caused by seismic waves as they move through Earth
Term
 magnitude
Definition
 the measurement of an earthquake's strength based on seismic waves and movement along faults.
Term
 mercalli scale
Definition
 a scale that rates earthquakes according to their intensity and how much damage they cause
Term
 richter scale
Definition
 a scale that rates seismic waves as measured by a particular type of mechanical seismograph
Term
 moment magnitude scale
Definition
 a scale that rates earthquakes by estimating the total energy released by and earthquake
Term
 What is the difference between constructive and destructive forces?
Definition
 Constructive forces shape the surface by building up mountains and landmasses. Destructive forces are those that slowly wear away mountains and, eventually, every other feature on the surface.
Term
 How do pressure and temperature change in Earth's interior?
Definition
 Pressure and temperature both increase as you get deeper into the Earth's interior.
Term
 Describe the characteristics of the Earth's crust.
Definition
 Rocks, mountains, Earth's outer skin, thin layer, dry land and ocean floor.
Term
 Describe the characteristics of the Earth's mantle.
Definition
 2nd layer down, solid layer of hot rock, made up of the upper lithosphere and the lower asthenosphere (weaker). The mantle is very thick.
Term
 Describe the characteristics of the Earth's outer core.
Definition
 Liquid molten metal, behaves like a thick liquid.
Term
 Describe the characteristics of the Earth's inner core.
Definition
 Dense ball of solid metal under extreme pressure
Term
 What are the three different ways that heat is transferred.
Definition
Term
Definition
 The transfer of heat through an empty space.
Term
 What is conduction?
Definition
 heat transfer by direct contact of particles of matter
Term
 What is convection?
Definition
 heat transfer involving the movement of fluids, liquids and gases. During convection, heated particles of fluid begin to flow, transferring heat energy from one part of the fluid to another.
Term
 Describe the Theory of Continental Drift.
Definition
 The idea that all the continents were once joined together and slowly drifted apart.
Term
 What evidence did Alfred Wegener use in his Theory of Continental drift?
Definition
 evidence from landforms matching up, similar fossils on different continents, climate evidence
Term
 Why was Wegener's theory of Continental Drift rejected?
Definition
 He could not provide a satisfactory explanation for the force that pushes or pulls the continents.
Term
 Describe the Theory of Sea Floor Spreading.
Definition
 the process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor.
Term
 State the evidence that Harry Hess used to support the Sea Floor spreading theory.
Definition
 evidence from the molten material and magnetic strip patterns on the ocean floor, evidence from drilling samples
Term
 Explain the role that subduction plays in sea floor spreading.
Definition
 subduction is the process by which the ocean floor sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle.
Term
 Describe the Theory of Plate Tectonics.
Definition
 explains the formation, movement and subduction of Earth's plates. Plates of the lithosphere float on top of the asthenosphere. Convection currents rise in the asthenosphere causing the movement of Earth's plates.
Term
 What are the three types of plate boundaries?
Definition
 transform, divergent, convergent
Term
 What is a transform boundary?
Definition
 a place where two plates slip past each other, moving in opposite directions.
Term
 What is a divergent boundary?
Definition
 the place where two plates move apart or diverge, causing a rift valley
Term
 What is a convergent boundary?
Definition
 the place where two plates come together or converge, causing mountains which rise up or a trench when one plate dives under another.
Term
 What is the difference between and epicenter and focus of an earthquake?
Definition
 The focus is below the earth's surface where the rock breaks. The epicenter is on the earth's surface directly above the focus.
Supporting users have an ad free experience!