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Religious Studies

Additional Religious Studies Flashcards





Discuss Scriptural names of the church 




‘Edhah: when applied to Israel, denotes the society itself formed by the children of Israel or their representative heads, whether assembled or not.  

Qahal: denotes the actual meeting together of people. 



ekklesia:designates a circle of believers to some definite locality.

sunagoge: used to denote either the religious gatherings of the Jews or the buildings in which they assembled for public worship. 



Explain various views on the essence of the church. [562-565]



The Roman Catholic conception:  the visible Church is first, - then comes the invisible: the former gives birth to the latter.’  This means that the Church is a mater fidelium [mother of believers] before she is a communio fidelium [community of believers]. 

 The Greek orthodox conception: does not find the essence of the Church in her as the community of the saints, but in the Episcopal hierarchy, which it has retained, while rejecting the Papacy. 

The Protestant conception:The essence of the church is not found in the external organization but in the Church as the communio sanctorum (community of saints)

Both visible and invisible church is essentially communio sanctorum, but the invisible Church is the Church as God sees it, a Church which contains only believers, while the visible Church is the Church as man sees it. 


Discuss  the doctrine of the church in history. [553-561]



The doctrine of the church before the Reformation:, emphasized the Episcopal institution of the Church.  Cyprian regarded the bishops as the real successors of the apostles and ascribed to them a priestly character in virtue of their sacrificial work.  

In the Middle Ages:the Pope became virtually an absolute monarch. 

The doctrine of the church during and after the Reformation:(reformation) the Church is essentially a communio sanctorum, a communion of saints.  (after 18th C) .  Rationalism made an influence, being indifferent in matters of faith and lacked enthusiasm for the Church.  


Explain the attributes of the church. [572-576]



The unity of the Church 

It is the mystical body of Jesus Christ of which all believers are members. The reformers did not find the bond of union in the ecclesiastical organization of the church, but in the true preaching of the Word and the right administration of the sacraments



The holiness of the church.

The Church is absolutely holy in an objective sense, as she is considered in Jesus Christ.  


The Catholicity of the church.

The invisible Church is the real catholic Church, because she includes all believers on earth.  


Explain the marks of the church. [576-578]



The true preaching of the Word (most important)


The right administration of the sacraments.  


The faithful exercise of discipline.  


Explain the different theories respecting the government of the church. [579-581] 


1. The view of Quakers and Darbyites: They reject all church government

2. The Erastian system: The Church as a society which owes its existence and form to regulations enacted by the state.  It is the function of the State to govern the Church, to exercise discipline and to excommunicate.

3. The Episcopalian system: .  It holds that Christ is the Head of the Church, entrust the government of the Church to an order of bishops, as the successors of the apostles; and that He has constituted these bishops a separate, independent order.  In this system the coetus fidelium [community of believers] has no share in the government of the Church. 

4. The Roman Catholic system: This is the Episcopal system carried to its logical conclusion.  The Roman Catholic system pretends to comprise, not only successors of the apostles, but also a successor to Peter, the leader amongst the apostles. The Church of Rome is of the nature of an absolute monarchy, under the control of an infallible Pope, who has the right to determine and regulate the doctrine, worship, and government of the Church. 

5. The congregational system: Considers the church or congregation as a complete church, independent of every other.  The governing power rests with the members of the church.  Officers are appointed to teach and administer affairs of the church, and have no governing power beyond what the members possess. 

6. The national-church system: Also called the Collegial system. .  It assumes that the Church is a voluntary association, equal to the State.  The separate churches or congregations are merely sub-divisions of the one national Church.  The original power resides in a national organization, and this organization has jurisdiction over the local churches.


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