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devl. hist of Eur. urban
industrail or victorian urbanization

Additional Geography Flashcards




How did industrialization change the manner in which goods were produced?
hand labor changed to machines, workshops changed to factories, more powerful sources of power, larger array of products, regimented, skilled labor(guild), changed to larger replaceable labor force
In what ways did the industrial revolution affect European urbanization; are there identifiable phases in this process; how would you characterize and explain these phases?

-rural proto industry:

-occurs in countryside bc of the power of the guilds

-move production from town to countryside to escape the power of the guilds

-started out as sewing factories

-rural implosion

.water power site

.brought people from country to hamlet(little town) and eventually a bigger milling town will develop


.can move them easily

.lots of women working intextile factories

-metallurgy:the small forge

.implodes (small operations are collected and put together)

.move to the coal fields

.industrial districts replace the countryside

-improved technology and transport:

-6x the increase: 25 to 60 million

-at the same time, population of Europe roughly doubles

-industrialization of capitals and ports

-expansion of range of prducts being produced

-belfast, 1911: no proximity to ship building materials

.testament to industrialization

How were the functions and built environments of city centers transformed during this period?

-industrial era: row or terrace housing

-shape of citeies were altered by industrialization

-not round, more octopus like

How were industrial workers housed; on the continent, in Britain?

produce worker's homes relatively cheap:

-not nice, very cramped, built crappy(wanted profit)

-prdominant form of industrial housing (montonous, minimal infrastructure)

-1640-1910:significant increase in building size and amount of peoplel living there

.sometimes called rental barracks

-residential squalor

.masses of children sitting on the street

.Gustave Dore engravings

.industrial slums

What role did railroads play in the growth of cities?

-circular railroal stations around the city

-pre-cast wrought iron and glass; shipped in bult to construction sites

-new innovations in architecture

-had to link railroad stations together

.london in the 1860's

-construction of bridges adn embankments

.embankment of Thames River (smelled bad)

..promted investment in a new sewage system

How did the overall shape of cities change?
Shape from oval to irregular shape,
How would you characterize the architecture of this period?

-modern material buildings

-neo historical styling(steel frame buildings made to look older)

.ex:houses of parliament(neo-gothic):looked to the past(legitimized)

-paris: haussmannization(modernizing)

.grand manner realized

.tore out the slums

.marriage in the bourgousie(didnt want to live too close to the working class)

-second empire mansard style:historically appealing

-got a new paris for the upper and middle class

What was the purpose of the many exhibitions staged by cities during this period?

-most cities wanted to display their progress with exhibitions(world fairs)

-london was first: crystal palace on display (contained machineery adn examples of meernity and progress)

-paris:eiffel tower

.international exposition of 1889

.built entirely of lattices wrought iron

.chosen from more than 100 plans submitted

.opposed to aesthetic grounds (french people hated it)

How was the social geography of cities changing during this period?
entertainment→ variey of dance halls, theatrical venues, motion-picture theaters now present, leisure→ place to go where people who go to read newspaper, be seen, drink coffee, Sundays at the beaches
Proto-industry or cottage industry (domestic or putting out system)
: an early period in which a new type of industrial town evolved from the reorganization and intensification of a proto-industrial economy that had long existed in some rural or semi-rural areas; countryside – non controlling, escape power of guilds, under-employed rural labor turned profitable
rural implosion
: near sources → new industrial towns
coal fields
metallurgy moved from being a msall forge to the coalfields
row or terrace housing, tenements,
new development associated with rail lines, in Britain/Ireland, cottage-like, shares walls, behind has some sort of courtyard, idea was to produce homes cheaply, modestly, easily
infrastructural developments (railroad, bridges, underground transportation, water and sewage, etc.,
: Railroad stations→ cathedrals of the era, pre-cast wrought iron and glass, shipped in bulk to construction sites, new innovations in architectures; linking railroad stations together to make system work, introduction to underground railways, London underground, construction of bridges and embankments, great stink: no adequate sewage system, smell got so bad that even in houses of parliament you couldn’t do work
neo-historic commercial-industrial architecture
always effort to make buildings look historical, maintain tradition, downtown environment, new buildings constructed out of iron, steel, glass, brick (modern material buildings)
retailing - department stores and galleria

-done in market squares

-arcades:like modern day shopping malls (rows of exclusive shops built into passage ways)

-rome, milan, the netherlands

-biggest one in moscow(red square: upper trading rows, GUM department store)

-introduction of department store

.London, Harrods: "Harrods serves the world"

Haussmannization (Grand Manner in Paris),
): Term refers to the mayor of Paris at the time, worked to invest in new look of capital, tangled and dirty dense core and follow through, tear out slums, possible because of idea of modernizing the core of cities, growing middle class was willing to invest in the process (grand manner worked because of this), new Paris for middle and upper classes (nice dwelling spaces)
Crystal Palace (Great Exhibition of 1851),
): for modernity, most big cities wanted to display their progress, London started this with an exhibition, centerpiece was the Crystal Palace
Eiffel Tower (International Exhibition of 1889),
built entirely out of lattice wrought iron, when built for exhibition they were planning to tear it down after, survived because it was difficult to tear down right away, when it was built the French though it was an abomination because it didn’t look historical at all
Art Noveau (Jugendstil, modernisme, etc.),

-style arose in Germany in mid 1890's and continued in the 1910's

-originally more floral decor, later more abstract



.antonio Gaudi I Cornet (1852-1926)

.Casa Mila "La Pedrera" (the stone quarry) 1906-1910

.fluid and uneven form

.temple expiatori de la sagrada familia

..looked like cigars

..his final project (became a recluse working on it)

Antonio Gaudi
famous architecture of modernisme in Barcelona, Casa Mila → not a straight wall in the entire architecture, attempt to do something completely new and different, Gaudi’s obsession: temple expiartori, still under construction today
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