# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Crystals and Minerals!
Mr. Drake Phy. Sci.
72
Geology
03/06/2007

Term
 Name the 6 crystal classes(shapes).
Definition
 Isometric(cubic), Tetragonal, Orthorhombic, Monoclinic, Triclinic, Hexagonal.
Term
 Describe an Isometric crystal and give an example.
Definition
 Shaped like a cube,octahedra,dodecahedra,etc. 3 axes of intersection, all of equal length and at 90-degree angles.Ex.gold, diamond.[image]
Term
 Describe a tetragonal crystal.
Definition
 A rectangular prism with squares at two ends, often long and needle-like, Common shapes:above, pyramids, dipyramids. 3 axes of intersection, 2 equal and one not, intersect at 90-degree angles.[image]
Term
 Describe an orthorhombic crystal and give an example.
Definition
 A rectangular prism with opposite sides congruent,generally short and stubby with diamond-shape or ractangular cross-section, Common shapes:4-sided prisms, pyramids, pinacoids. 3 unequal intersecting axes, intersect at 90-degree angles.Ex. sulfu, topaz.[image]
Term
 Describe a monoclinic crystal.
Definition
 A slanted rectangular prism, crystals are stubby w/tilted matching faces at opposite ends forming a tilted rectangular prism. 3 axes of unequal lengths, 2 axes at 90-degree angle, 1 axis not.[image]
Term
 Dexcribe a triclinic crystal.
Definition
 A rhombus-shaped prism, crystals are usually flattened with sharp edges and thin cross-sections, 3 unequal axes, no 90-degree angles anywhere on crystal. All forms are pinacoids or pdeions.[image]
Term
 Describe a hexagonal crystal.
Definition
 A hexagonal or triangular prism, common shapes:3 or 6-sided prisms, pyramids,rhombohedra. 4 axes, 3 of same length and at 90-degree angles, 1 axis perpendicular and diff. length.Ex. quartz, calcite.[image]
Term
 Name the four types of bonds that hold crystals together.
Definition
 Ionic, covalent, metallic, molecular.
Term
 Describe ionic bonds and give an example.
Definition
 Occurs when metal atoms, which tend to lose elestrons, interact with nonmetal atoms, which tend to gain electrons. Fairly strong bonds which result in crystals with high melting points. Ex. sodium chloride(salt).
Term
 Describe covalent bonds and give an example.
Definition
 Occurs when atoms "share" an electron with their neighbors which bonds them together. Can result in both face-centered, shares with 6 closest, and body-centered, shares with 8 closest, cubic crystal structures. forms very strong bonds in the crystals with a very high melting point. Ex. Diamonds.
Term
 Describe metallic bonds and give an example.
Definition
 Occurs when one or two of a metal atom's electrons joins other metals' electons in a general electron "gas". Ex. Bronze.
Term
 Describe molecular bonds and give an example.
Definition
 Occurs when either two polar molecules are attraced, 1 polar and one nonpolar molecule are attracted, or 2 close nonpolar molecules are attracted when they become momentarily polar due to regular fluctuations. Molecular crystals have little strength, and low metal and boiling points. Ex. Ice and Dry Ice(solid CO2).
Term
 What is the difference between rocks and crystals?
Definition
 Rocks are mixtures and minerals are compounds.
Term
 Which of the following are minerals? Diamond, calcite, petroleum, ice, soil, wood, salt, coal.
Definition
 Diamond, calcite, ice, salt.
Term
 What is a mineral?
Definition
 A crystalline inorganic solid found in nature that has a fairly specific chemical composition.
Term
 What are Van der Waals forces?
Definition
 Polar forces that for molecular crystals.
Term
 What is the most abundant mineral family on the planet? Give the chemical formula. Describe it and give example.
Definition
 Silicates.(SiO4)3- They are also the most varied and complex mineral group because of their structure. Ex. feldspar, mica, hornblende.
Term
 Most minerals are __1__. Some are __2__. Only native __3__ are __4__. None are __5__.
Definition
 1. Ionic2. Covalent3. Metals4. Metallic5. Molecular?????
Term
 What are positive and negative ions called?
Definition
 Pos= CationNeg= Anion
Term
 Cations are generally __1__. Anions are generally__2__.
Definition
 1. Metals2. Nonmetals
Term
 What is the only way to be come a cation or an anion?
Definition
 Cation= lose electronsAnion= Gain electrons
Term
 What are the maximum positive and negative charges?
Definition
 +3, -3
Term
 Once a cation and an anion are bonded, what is the charge of the molecule?
Definition
 Neutral
Term
 Describe carbonates, give the chemical formula, and give examples.
Definition
 (CO3)2- All made of carbon and most are components of limestone. Ex. Calcite, aragonite, and dolomite.
Term
 Describe phosphates, give the chemical formula, and give examples.
Definition
 (PO4)2- Made of phosphorus. Most important ex. is clacium fluorine phosphate called apatite. Secreted to spined animals to construct bones and teeth.
Term
 Describe sulfates, give the chemical formula, and give examples.
Definition
 (SO4)2- Made from sulfur and oxygen. Ex. anhydride and gypsum(Calcium sulfates).
Term
 What is an ore mineral?
Definition
 An ore is any rock that contains enough of an economically important mineral and element that it can be profitably mined.
Term
 What are simple oxides?
Definition
 Minerals that contain oxygen but no silicon.Contain useful elements in high concentrations.Most important ex. are magnetite and hematite(iron oxides). These form pronciple iron ores. Quartz is an oxide.
Term
 What are sulfides?
Definition
 Similar to oxides, except sulfur atom forms anion instead of oxygen atom. These minerals are economically important. They often have a metallic luster. Ex. Pyrite(fool's gold).
Term
 What are native elements?
Definition
 Elements found in their pure form as mineral deposits. When they are precious metals, they are the moust sought after in the world. Ex. Inorganic: graphite, diamond, sulfur Metal: native copper, native silver, native gold.
Term
 Crystals always grow according to ___1___ __2__ __3__.
Definition
 Simple mathematical laws.
Term
 What crystal family is copper sulfate?
Definition
 Triclinic.
Term
 What crytal family is potassium ferricyanide?
Definition
 monoclinic
Term
 What crystal family is sodium chloride?
Definition
 Isometric (fac-centered cubic)
Term
 What crystal family is sodium nitrate?
Definition
 Trigonal
Term
 What crystal family is potassium sodium tartate?
Definition
 orthorhombic
Term
 What crystal family is aluminum potassium sulfate?
Definition
 hexagonal
Term
 What chemical bonds do not occur in minerals?
Definition
 Molecular
Term
 What type of bond bonds native metals of the same kind together?
Definition
 metallic
Term
 Nonmetals' charges=1Metals' charges=2
Definition
 1. -2. +
Term
 -ate means?
Definition
 Has oxygen. ex. sulfate, carbonate, phosphate, etc.
Term
 Sulfur and oxygen are bonded __1__. Why?
Definition
 1. covalentlyBecause they are both nonmetals.
Term
 1. What is bonded in covalent bond?2. What is bonded in ionic bond?3. what is bonded in metallic bond?
Definition
 1. Two nonmetals2. Metal and nonmetal3. Two metals
Term
 Non metallic native elements(ex.diamond) bond ____.
Definition
 covalently
Term
 What are rock-forming minerals?
Definition
 Common minerals that make up most of the Earth's crust.
Term
 What is the name for the study of minerals and their properties?
Definition
 Mineralogy
Term
 What are the three ways to identify minerals by looking at them?
Definition
 Color, luster, crystal shape.
Term
 What is luster?
Definition
 The way a mineral shines in reflected light. Ex. matallic, nonmetallic, pearly, glassy, greasy.
Term
 What are the 4 ways to identify minerals by simple tests?
Definition
 Streak, cleavage, fracture, hardness.
Term
 What is the streak of a mineral?
Definition
 The color of its powder. Constant throughout mineral(if mineral color changes, streak doesn't) and not necesarily the same color as mineral.
Term
 What is the cleavage of a mineral?
Definition
 Its tendency to split easily or to separate along flat surfaces.
Term
 How do minerals fracture?
Definition
 When they break along noncleavage surfaces(curved surfaces, jagged surfaces).
Term
 What is the hardness of a mineral and how is it tested?
Definition
 Its resistance to being scratched. To find the hardness you need to compare it to known levels on the Mohs' scale. If it is inbetween a 5 and a 6 it is a 6.5.
Term
 Glass breaks when it is dropped because it is __1__, not because it is not __2__.
Definition
 1. brittle2. hard
Term
 What is specific gravity and how is it used in identifying minerals?
Definition
 The ratio of the weight of a mineral to the weight of an equal volume of water. It tells you how many times denser the mineral is than water.
Term
 What mineral reacts the best to an acid test and what is an acid test?
Definition
 Calcite. When you drop acid on a rock and it fizzes, it helps to identify mineral.
Term
 What are 6 special properties that are only found in a few minerals?
Definition
 Magnetism, taste, fluorescence, phosphorescence, radioactivity, double refraction.
Term
 Describe quartz.
Definition
 Quartz is a silicate. It's called silicon dioxide. Glassy luster, shell-like fracture, number 7 on hardness(hardest of all common minerals). Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's crust. Most sadn consists of tiny grains of quartz.
Term
 Describe feldspar.
Definition
 Most abundant family of minerals in earth's crust(60%). 2 directions of cleavage, hardness of 6, pearly luster.Ionically bonded. 2 groups- potassium feldpsar and sodium-calcite feldspar.
Term
 Describe mica.
Definition
 Soft silicate found in many rocks. Flaky with one perfect cleavage. hardness of 2.5.
Term
 What is the softest mineral? The hardest?
Definition
 Talc and diamond.
Term
 What is an example of a ferromagnesian silicate?
Definition
 Hornblende, a type of amphibole.
Term
 Describe calcite.
Definition
 The most common carbonate mineral. Colorless or white. Hardness of 3, 3 perfect cleavages, easily identified in an acid test.
Term
 What is an oxide? Give an example.
Definition
 A mineral consiting of a metal element combined with oxygen.Ex. Hematite and magnetite.
Term
 What is a sulfide?Give an example.
Definition
 A mineral consisting of a metal element combined with sulfur.Ex. pyrite.
Term
 Describe hematite.
Definition
 most common iron oxide mineral. hardness of 5-6, red-brown streak.
Term
 Describe magnetite.
Definition
 A black magnetic iron oxide. Attracted to a mgnet Lodestone is a natural magnet.
Term
 What is fluorescence?
Definition
 Glowing under UV light
Term
 What is phosphorescence?
Definition
 Glowing after UV light is turned off.
Term
 What is radioactivity in a mineral?
Definition
 Ability to give off subatomic particles.
Term
 What is double refraction?
Definition
 When light travels thru this mineral's crystal, light ray is split, one half goes straight, the other is bent.
Term
 What does it mean to be magnetic?
Definition
 The mineral can be picked up by a magnet.
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