# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Criminal Justice Research Methods
test two (very end of chapter 4 to middle of chapter 8)
148
Criminal Justice
04/05/2012

Term
 Level of Measurement
Definition
 the complexity of the mathematical mean that can be used to express the relationship between a variables values.
Term
 Nominal level of measurement
Definition
 (categorical or qualitative) identifies variables whose values have no mathematical interpretation, they can vary in kind or quality not not in amount.
Term
 Mutually exclusive attributes
Definition
 a variable's attributes or value are __________________ if every case can have only one attribute
Term
 Exhaustive attributes
Definition
 A variable's attributes or values are ________________ when every case can be classified into on of the categories
Term
 Example- Nominal level of measurement
Definition
 Measure of nationality/ measure of females and males by giving males the number 1 and females the number 2
Term
 Example of Ordinal Level
Definition
 Measurement of conflict
Term
 Example of Interval level of measurement
Definition
 measurement of the temperature in degrees fahrenheit
Term
 Example of Ratio level of measurement
Definition
 measurement of group size
Term
 Dichotomies
Definition
 values having only two values, are a special case from the standpoint of levels of measurement
Term
 Closed-ended question
Definition
 asked to indicate an answer by checking none, one, twice, 3 to 5 times, 6 to 9 times or 10 or more times. The use of these categories make the level of measurement ordinal
Term
 Sample
Definition
 a subset of the population ( group that actually gets studied)
Term
 Elements (or/ elementary units)
Definition
 individual members of the sample group
Term
 sampling frame
Definition
 the list from which elements are selected and interviewed from
Term
 Enumeration Units
Definition
 Sample households are terms as this so you can identify the adult individual in the households
Term
 Sampling unit
Definition
 unit actually selected in each stage of sampling
Term
 Primary sampling unit
Definition
 (Sampling schools for survey) school would be this selected for the 1st stage and they are the element of the study
Term
 Secondary sampling study
Definition
 (Sampling schools for survey) the teachers are this because they are not the element they are just used to provide information about the entire school.
Term
 Sample Generalizability
Definition
 this exist when a conclusion based on a sample, or subset, or a larger population holds true for that population
Term
 Cross-population generalizability (external)
Definition
 exist when finding about on group, population, or setting holds true for other groups, population, or settings
Term
 Sample error
Definition
 any difference between the characteristics of a sample and the characteristics of the population from which it was drawn.
Term
 Target Population
Definition
 set of elements larger than or different from the population that was sampled and to which the researcher would like to generalize any study findings
Term
 Representative sample
Definition
 a sample that looks like the population from which it was selected from in all respects that are potentially relevant to the study.
Term
 Probability of selection
Definition
 sample method that allows us to know in advance how likely it is that any element of the populate will be selected for the same. (example- head or tails is 1 out of 2 or .5)
Term
 Nonprobability sampling methods
Definition
 sampling methods that do not let us know the likelihood in advance
Term
 Random selection
Definition
 every element of population has a known and independent chance of being selected into the sample
Term
 Nonresponse
Definition
 this is a major hazard in survey research because people that do not respond are likely to differ systematically from those who take the time to participate
Term
 Simple random sample
Definition
 requires a procedure that generates numbers or identifies cases strictly on the basis of chance
Term
 Random number table
Definition
 researcher would use this when he numbers all the elements in the sample frame and then uses a systematic procedure for picking corresponding numbers from this ________
Term
 Random Digit dialing
Definition
 a machine that dials random numbers within the phone prefixes corresponding to the area in which the survey is being conducted
Term
 Replace sampling
Definition
 each element is returned to the sample frame from where it was selected to that it might be selected again from the frame
Term
 Sample interval
Definition
 (used during systematic random sampling ) the total number of the population divided by the number of cases required for the sample(if you need 50 samples) out of 1000 the ___________ is 20 because 1000/50=20
Term
 Availability sampling
Definition
 elements that are selected because they are available or easy to find. (this type of sample is not generalizable, but is often appropriate in research for using as an example) Reporter might do this on the street by using person-on-the-street interview
Term
 Quota sampling
Definition
 type of sampling that is much like stratified sampling but is less rigorous and precise in the selection process. this type ensures that the sample represents certain characteristics in population
Term
 Sampling distribution
Definition
 a hypothetical distribution of statistic (e.g., proportion, mean) across an infinite number of random samples that could be drawn from a population
Term
 Inferential Statistics
Definition
 Mathematical tools for estimating how likely it is that a statistical result based on data from random sample is representative of the population from which the sample was selected
Term
 Normal distribution
Definition
 Its graph looks like a bell with one hump in the middle, centered around the population mean and the number of cases tapering off on both sides of the mean
Term
 Systematic sampling error
Definition
 overrepresentation or underrepresentation of some population characteristics in a sample due to the method uses to select the sample (biased sample)
Term
 Random sampling error
Definition
 difference between the population and the sample that are die only to chance factors, not to systemic sampling error. This may or not result in an unrepresentative sample
Term
 Sample statistic
Definition
 an estimated statistic from the one sample we actually selected from a population
Term
 Confidence interval
Definition
 the range defined by the confidence limits for a sample statistic
Term
 confidence limits
Definition
 the upper and lower bounds around an estimate of population parameter base on a statistic. the confidence limits shows how much confidence can be placed in the estimate.
Term
 Units of analysis
Definition
 levels of social life on which the research questions is focused, such as individuals, groups, towns or nations
Term
 Units of observation
Definition
 data collected from individuals
Term
 ecological fallacy
Definition
 when a researcher draws conclusions about individual level processes from group level data
Term
 reductionist fallacy
Definition
 when data about individuals are used to make inference about group level processes
Term
 Nomothetic causal explanation
Definition
 involving the belief that variation in an independent variable will be followed by variation in the dependent variable, when al other things are equal.
Term
 Causal Effect (nomothetic perpective)
Definition
 when variation in one phenomenon (independent variable) leads to or results, on average in variation in another phenomenon (the dependent variable)
Term
 Example of a Nomothetic causal effect
Definition
 individuals arrested for domestic assault tent to commit fewer subsequent assaults than do individuals who are accused in the same circumstance but not arrested
Term
 Idiographic causal explanation
Definition
 the concrete, individual sequence of events, thoughts, or actions that result in a particular outcome for a particular individual that led to a particular event
Term
 Example of an idiographic causal effect
Definition
 individual is neglected by his parents.. he comes to distrust other, has trouble maintaining friendships, has trouble in school, and eventually get addicted to heroin. to support his habit he starts selling drugs and he is ultimately arrested and convicted for drug trafficking
Term
 Time order
Definition
 to conclude that causation was involved we must see that that cases were exposed to variation in the independent variable before variables in the dependent variable
Term
 Nonspuriousness
Definition
 the relationship between two variables is no due to variation in a third variable
Term
 Extraneous variable
Definition
 this is the 3rd variable that cause variation between the first two variables.
Term
 Spurious relationship
Definition
 when a extraneous variable cause variation between the independent and dependent variable.
Term
 Mechanism
Definition
 some discernible mean of creating a connection
Term
 Contextual effect
Definition
 when relationship amount variables differ across geographic units like counties or across other social settings
Term
 True experiment must have these 3 things
Definition
 1) two comparison groups one experimental one control 2)random assignment 3) assessment of change in the dependent variable for both groups after experimental condition has been received
Term
 Field Experiments
Definition
 When a method utilizes the condition of an experimental method in a real world setting
Term
 Cross-sectional research design
Definition
 all data are collected at one point in time; identifying the time order of the effects what happened first and so on.
Term
 Longitudinal research design
Definition
 data are collected at two or more pouts in time and so identification of the time order of effects can be quite straightforward
Term
 Life calendar
Definition
 this helps respondents recall events in their past by displaying each month of a given year along with key dates noted with the calendar such as birthdays, arrest, holidays, anniversaries and so on.
Term
 Anchors
Definition
 key dates which are placed inside of a life calendar
Term
Definition
 the life calendar instrument is based on this type of interview schedule
Term
 Lo, Kim, and Cheng (2008)
Definition
 Do offenders specialize in different crimes? Used the life calendar instrument
Term
 Trend study
Definition
 the other name forRepeated cross-sectional design
Term
 Repeated cross-sectional design
Definition
 type of longitudinal study in which data are collected at two or more points in time from different samples of the population
Term
 How repeated cross-sectional surveys are conducted
Definition
 1- sample is drawn from a populations at time 1 and data are collected from the sample2- as time passes some people leave the population and others enter it3- at time 2 a different sample is drawn from the population
Term
 Fixed-sample panel design (panel study)
Definition
 type of longitudinal study in which data are collected from the same individuals- the panel- at two or more points in time
Term
 How fixed-sample panel designs are conducted
Definition
 1- a sample(the panel) is drawn from the population at time1 and data is collected from the sample2- as time passes some panel members become unavailable for follow up and the population changes3 at time2, data is collected from the same people as time1, with the exception of those people who could not be located
Term
 Sampson and laub (1990)
Definition
Term
 Subject fatigue
Definition
 panel members may grow weary of repeated interviews and drop out of the study or may become so used to answering standard question that they start giving stock answers rather than actually thinking about their current feeling or actions, which is called
Term
 Event-based design
Definition
 called cohort studyThe follow-up samples are picked from people who have experienced a similar event or a common sating point
Term
 Cohort
Definition
 people who have experienced a similar event or a common starting point
Term
 Cohort study
Definition
 event-based design- study individual from the same cohort-Birth cohort( people who share common period of birth (1940s 1950s, etc) -Seniority cohort (people working in the same place for about 5 years, about 10 years) -School Cohort (freshmen, junior, senior, etc)
Term
 Statistical control
Definition
 a technique used in non experimental research to reduce the risk of spuriousness, one variable is held constant so the relationship between two or more other variables can be assessed without the influence of variation in the control variable.
Term
 Example of statistical control
Definition
 Sampson found that the relationship between rates of family disruption and violent crime held true for cities with similar levels of joblessness (the control variables) so the rate of joblessness could not have cause the association between family disruption and violent crime.
Term
 intervening variables
Definition
 variables that are influenced by an independent variable and in turn influence variables in a dependent variable, thus helping to explain the relationship between the independent and dependent variable
Term
 posttest
Definition
 measurement of the outcome in both groups after the experimental group has received the treatment
Term
 Pretest
Definition
 measures the dependent variable prior to the experimental intervention
Term
 When do experiments not require a Pretest
Definition
 when random assignment is used-because the groups score on the dependent and other variables will most likely be similar
Term
 matching
Definition
 pairing of persons basis on similarity of gender, age, year in school etc Problems- only match by few characteristic so it might influence the outcome
Term
 Quasi-experimental design
Definition
 this is usually the nest alternative to an experimental design, maximizing internal validity the comparison group is predetermined to be comparable to the treatment group uncritical ways, such as eligibility for the same service or attendance at the same school cohort
Term
 3 major types of quasi-experimental design
Definition
 -Nonequivalent control group- -Before and After design--Ex post facto control group design-
Term
 -Nonequivalent control group
Definition
 have experimental and comparison group designed before the treatment occurs and are not created by random assignment
Term
 -Before and After design
Definition
 have a pretest and posttest but no comparison group, in other words the subjects are exposed to the treatment served at an earlier time as their own control
Term
 -Ex post facto control group design
Definition
 like nonequivalent control group design, have experimental and comparison groups that are not created by random assignment. but unlike the groups in nonequivalent control groups design , the groups in ex post facto designs are designated after the treatment or intervention has occurred. for this reason some researchers consider this design to be non experimental, not even quasi-experimental
Term
 Nonequivalent control group designs
Definition
 Individual matching- individuals cases in the treatment groups are matched with similar individuals in the comparison groups Aggregated matching- matching in the aggregated means finding a group with similar distribution on key variables such as same ages, same percentage of females and so on. comparison group is identified by the ones that matches the treatment group in the aggregated rather than individuals
Term
 Fixed sample panel design
Definition
 the simplest type of before and after design-a panel design involve only one pretest and posttest, and does not qualify as a quasi-experimental design because comparing subjects to themselves at one earlier point does not provide adequate comparison groups
Term
 Repeated measure design
Definition
 (time series design) this design typically includes many pretest and posttest observations that allow the researcher to study the process by which the intervention or treatment has an impact over time
Term
 Carrington and Schulenburgs
Definition
 studied the effect of the youth criminal justice act (YCJA) of 2002 in canada on police discretion with apprehending young offenders by using Repeated measure panel design
Term
 5 basic sources of internal invalidity
Definition
 -selection bias -endogenous change-external events or history effect-contamination -treatment misidentification
Term
 Selection Bias
Definition
 when characteristics of the experimental and comparison group subject differ
Term
 endogenous change
Definition
 when the subject develop or change during the experiment as part of an ingoing process independent of the experimental treatment
Term
 External event or history effect
Definition
 when something occurs during the experiment, other than the treatment, that influences outcome scores
Term
 Contamination
Definition
 when either the experimental group or the comparison group is aware of the other group and is influenced in the posttest as a result
Term
 Treatment misidentification
Definition
 when variation in the independent variable (the treatment) is associated with variation in the observed outcome, but the changes occurs though a process that the researchers has not identified
Term
 differential attrition
Definition
 group can differ over time because of this and it can be though of as deselection.Groups become different because of various reasons subjects are more lively to drop out of a group
Term
 endogenous changes include 3 specific threats to internal validity
Definition
 Testing- (people may answer different since they are asked the some question in the pre and posttest)maturation- (may age)Regression- (someone who got a low score might change because they were just having a bad day)
Term
 Compensatory rivalry or the John Henry effect
Definition
 when the comparison group members become aware that they are being denied some advantage, they may increase their efforts to compensate
Term
 Treatment misidentification has at least three sources;
Definition
 1) expectancies of experimental staff2) placebo effect 3)Hawthorne effect
Term
 expectancies of experimental staff
Definition
 staff can deliver the treatment in a enthusiasm that makes the subject create a self-fulfilling prophecy Double-blind procedures - where the staff that is delivering the treatment doesn't know
Term
 Placebo effect
Definition
 When you give someone a fake treatment but they start to feel better because the have an expectation that it will make them better. but the treatment actually has no medical effect
Term
 Hawthorne effect
Definition
 members of the treatment group may change in terms of the dependent variable because their participation in the study may make them feel speical
Term
 Process analysis
Definition
 periodic measures are taken throughout the experiment to assess whether the treatment is being delivers as planned . use this to avoid treatment misidentification
Term
 External validity
Definition
 the applicability of a treatment effect (or non effect) across subgroups within an experiment and/or across different population, times, or settings.
Term
 Solomon four-group design
Definition
 randomly assigns subjects to at least two experimental groups and a least two comparison groups (1 experiment and 1 comparison will have a pretest then the other experiment and comparison group will not have a pretest)
Term
 Ethical issues in experimental research
Definition
 deception and distribution of benefits
Term
 Ordinal level of measurement
Definition
 What type of measurement is likely to use words like, strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, and strongly disagree
Term
 Ordinal level of measurement
Definition
 What type of measurement is likely to use words like, strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, and strongly disagree
Term
 Probability sampling
Definition
 simple random sampling and complex random sampling
Term
 Distribution curve
Definition
 random sampling error produces this
Term
 simple random sampling
Definition
 this type of sampling has to use equal probability selection methods likeRandom number tablecomputer systematic random sampling
Term
 Systematic random sampling
Definition
 a unit is randomly selected from a list then every nth element is chosen to use
Term
 Sample error decline when
Definition
 you-have a large sample size sample to the population is greater than .25the use of random selection procedure
Term
 systematic bias
Definition
 this is eliminated when nothing but change affects the selection of the element
Term
 nonsputipousness
Definition
 correlation does not prove causation
Term
 Ceteris paribus
Definition
 latin word for - there things are equal
Term
 Statistical regression
Definition
 cyclical or episodic change that results in different posttest scores/ (maybe the person was having a bad day) and will do better time
Term
 Counterfactual
Definition
 outcome that would have occurred if subject who was exposed to the treatment was actually not
Term
 Survey research
Definition
 involves the collection of information from a sample of individuals through their responses to questions
Term
Definition
 respondent completes and submits survey instrument - mail survey - email/ internet survey-classroom type survey
Term
 Interviews
Definition
 researcher ask respondent questions and respondents answers to theses questions - face to face - telephone
Term
 -Versatility (popularity)-efficiency- generalizabiliy
Definition
 attractive features of survey research
Term
 issues in survey research
Definition
 selection biasmeasurement erroroveremphasis on minor forms of offending panel studies
Term
 Selection bias (survey research)
Definition
 response rate (not sure what the majority opinion is)
Term
 Measurement error (survey research)
Definition
 more error is likely if someone says they have have committed a higher amount of crime rather than someone who says they committed a small number
Term
 Overemphasis on minor forms of offending
Definition
 knowing different between a kid get lunch money stole and armed robbery
Term
 Panel study (survey research) (testing effect)
Definition
 person learn the way to answer question in a way that will make the survey shorter
Term
 Phone Surveys
Definition
 this type of survey is likely to have low contamination rates and high control over sample selection
Term
 fenced-sitting (questions problems)
Definition
 survey respondent that sees themselves as being neutral on an issue and choose to answer a middle (neutral) response
Term
 Floating (questions)
Definition
 when substantive answers are given even when subject does not know it
Term
 Contingency questions (example)
Definition
Term
 Bushman's experiment
Definition
 media violence and aggression (violent video)
Term
 Klick and tabarrok
Definition
 police strength increase substantially on days when the terror alert level rises
Term
 Klick and tabarrok (type of study, other)
Definition
 Non-experimental study w/ high internal validity
Term
 Gaes and Camp
Definition
 (Prison condition and recidivism)Policy goal- lower security = lower cost of confinement
Term
 Gaes and Camp (type of study, validity)
Definition
 this is a Randomized experiment with high internal validity and reasonably credible external validity
Term
 Manski and nagin (1998)
Definition
 juvenile recidivism (2 years) Residential or community placement
Term
Definition
 retrospective event based, cohort design By age t what fraction of individuals in the population get arrest at least once
Term
 Carrington and schulenberg
Definition
 studied the effect of the youth criminal justice act in canada on police discretion with young offenders Times series design---> repeated measure panel design
Term
 Golds study
Definition
 Matched teens 1) reported having been arrest in last 3 years 2)reported committing at least 4 offenses
Term
 Farrington study
Definition
 labling did not compare apples to apples
Term
 Chen and Shapiro
Definition
 federal inmate classification system - different security levels corresponds tp different security levels
Term
 response rate
Definition
 number of units that responded out of the number of units contacted
Term
 Mecklenburg study
Definition
 how serious a problem is crime had no response rate, so you don't know what the majority opinion actually is
Term
 Likert-type response
Definition
 this type of response generally ask respondent to indicate to the extent to which they agree or disagree with the statement
Term
 Idiosyncratic variation
Definition
 occurs when individuals response vary because of their reaction to particular words or ideas in the question
Term
 Reliability measures
Definition
 helps researchers decide whether responses are consistent
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