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Crime Theory Test #2
Criminal Justice
Undergraduate 2

Additional Criminal Justice Flashcards




Brathwhithe's Shaming & Crime Theory
  1. Legal violations evoke formal attempts by the state & informal efforts by inmates & community members to control the misconduct 
  2. Social Control = Shaming; Def: Process experessin disapproval; effect of invoking reomores and/or comdemation by others aware of their shaming.
  3. Two Types of Shaming: Disintigrative and Reintigrative 
  4. Disintigrative: Consistant with labeling theory; stigmatizes and excludes outcats, and disallows rehabilitation 
  5. Reintigrative: Added by Brathwithe; illegal act initally evokes community but then tries to reintigrate offender back into the community though words and gestures of forgiveness. 
How Did Brathwithe's Theory Enrich The Labeling Theory? 
  1. Deliniated types of shaming or societal reactions
  2. Observed that the underlying social context determines the degree to which shaming will be reintigrative or disintigrative. 
The Three Factors Sykes used to Explain the Rise of Criminological Conflict Theory
  1. The impact of the war in Vietnam on American Society - Disinformation or lies told by the government, protest marches, armed troops fired on and killed apparently peaceful protesters on college campuses. 
  2. The growth of counterculture - Dramatized fundamental conflict in values ; millions engaged in behavior that was harmless, but illegal under the justice system. 
  3. The rising political protest over discrimination and the use of police power of the state to suppress political dessent - The only way of dealing with unjust lwaws enforcing seggrigation was to violate them; therefore the protesters became "criminal." 
Marx and Engel's Thoughts About Capitalism and Crime
  1. Crime = a symptom of a decline of social solidarity and would be diminished if social solidarity could be regained
  2. Saw problems in economic terms & denounced the division of labor as unjust exploration between social classes.
  3. Proposed revelation followd by socialism
  4. Conflict = inherent in the nature of social arangements under capitalims because of the vast differences in interests and power created by it. 
  5. Capitalism was considered to be the root of the conflict because it was a source of unjust inequality.
  6. The resolution to conflict was to destroy capitalism and build toward the one just form of social solidarity - communism. 
Peacemaking Criminology
  1. Accepts the notion that conflict is the root of crime, but it advocates a policy rseponse that refuses to escalate this conflict in favor of policies of conciliation and mediation
  2. Aims to build trust and a sense of community
  3. Conflict is best resolved by building social bonds amongst people
  4. Reflects the position of many marganalized people who realize that they cannot obtain their goals by overpowering their oppositing
  5. Reflects an assumption that "two wrongs don't make a right" 
  6. Leads to social polices such as restorative justice
  7. Highly crticized for utopian thinking and for the suggestion that power can be counter by something other than power. 
Central Argument of Abolitionism
  1. No concrete definition of abolistionism
  2. A centeral tenent of general abolitionism is that punishment is never justified and the criminal justice system as a whole is the social problem that should be dismantled and replaces with alternative dispute relsolution
Convict Criminology
  1. Created by John Irwin - the first convict to use his criminal experience to enter academia 
  2. Late 1990s - convicts turned academics had enough critical mass, energy, and determination to start what is now called "convict criminology" 
  3. By 2003 - was self declared as a new school with in criminology 
Positives and Negatives of Convict Criminology 
  1. Positives: Its humanitarism orientation ecompasses a kind of "back-to-basics" criminology, one that listens to the people on the recieving end of criminal justice; empowered some ex-cons, convict criminology has in turn given voice to prision workers close to the ground in prision administration & research
  2. Negatives: (1) Not clear that convict criminology is doing anything new that has not been done in the past 45 years; (2) While the convict stoy from convcit's perspectives is intresting, it has risks having more in common with journalism & novels than with academic criminology; (3) Approach is struggling to negotiate a position of critical relevance - has created what appears to be somewhat of stustained presence within criminology and media. 
Explain how the interest of the law enforcement community was served by new stalking statutes 
  1. It gave a clear definition of what stalking was; previous to the statute, it failed to give a precise definition and that caused a lot of disambiguation with the law. 
"State Organized Crime"
  1. Chambliss's Definition - Acts committed by governemnt officials or by the state that are definte by their own laws as criminal. Governemnts often engage in criminal acts such as smuggling drugs and terrorist acts. 
  2. Example 1: U.S. Intellegence Agencies use covert intelligence activites such as passage through customs can be facilitated through official channels. Inrecent years, intellegence agencies have sough and recieved assistance from drug traffickers. 
  3. Example 2: In 1959, Fidel Castro overthrew Cuban dictator Fulgencino Batista. Batista had been friendly to U.S. corporations and to U.S. roganized crime interests who had run massive gambling, prostitution and nartcotics operations out of Havana. To attempt to stop this, Nixon created "Operation 40," which involved terrirst attacks on Cuba, attempted assasinations of CUban leaders and and an alliance with prominent organized crime figures
Does organized crime plays a functional role in society?
  1. Organized does not play a functional role in society
  2. It is economically productive by creating spurs of growth by providing alternate forms of profit. It also has a cantrol function that absports surplus population by putting them to work in criminal enterprises. 
  3. It creates a parallel opportunity structure to upperworld economy by providing empoyment for people otherwise unemployed or underemployed.
Why haven't regulatory agencies been very effective in addressing the white collar crime problem? 
  1. Corporations are underreegulated by the government. 
  2. Corporations play a role in defining their own criminality; government seeks the input from corporations.
  3. The government and corporations have a close relationship with each other. 
  4. Government actions can facilitate white collar crime (i.e. the savings and loans scandal of 1980s). 
  5. The government concents decre as a common remedy; the corporations negotiate with the government and agrees to alter its conduct and in return company does not have to admit guilt. 
  6. Seveere sanctions are rarely applied - the most common sanctions are warning and fines. People are rarely convicted of crime and it's less likely for an offender to go to jail. 
The Three Basic Policies The Government's Strategy In The War on Drugs Has Hinged On
  1. Eradicate or control drugs at the source - The supply reduction policy is based on the mythical assumption that the drug trade is a fixed and static market place. The reality is that the supply of drugs is infinitely elastic. 
  2. Indterdict or sieze drugs as they enter the country - The  myth assumes that with sufficent resources drugs can be stopped from entering US by controlling the borders. Due to extensive miles of shoreline and international borders and many ports of entery finding the shipmints is virtually impossible. However, there has been minior succes with marijuana because it's easy to spot. 
  3. Reduce the number of drug consumers - Researchers have found that the legal threats accompyanying drug use have little or no impact on use levels. Illegality reaps profits for drug salesmen and stimulates experimentation. 
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