# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

CRIM 330 - Criminal Justice Research
Cal State LA - Professor Nicole Smolter
62
Criminal Justice
06/05/2014

Term
 Conceptualization
Definition
 The process of specifying what we mean by a term. In deductive research, it helps to translate portions of an abstract theory into testable hypotheses involving specific variables. In inductive research, it is an important part of the process used to make sense of related observations.
Term
 Operationalization
Definition
 The process of specifying thee operations that will indicate the value of a variable for each case.
Term
 Levels of Measurement
Definition
 The mathematical precision with which the values of a variable can be expressed.
Term
 Nominal
Definition
 Identifies variable whose values have no mathematical interpretation. Uses discrete categories that vary in kind or quality, but not in amount.
Term
 Ordinal
Definition
 Can be quantitative or qualitative, specifies only the order of the cases, in greater than and less than distinctions. We can know that one category is higher or lower than another, but we cannot know how much larger or smaller.
Term
 Interval
Definition
 Numbers which represent a fixed measurement of units but have no absolute zero point. Can determine order as well as degree of difference between answers. Ex. How long is your prison sentence? Answer can't be zero.
Term
 Ratio
Definition
 Fixed measuring units with an absolute zero point (zero meaning absolutely no amount out of whatever the variable indicates. Can determine order as well as degree of difference between answers. Ex. How many times have you been arrested? Answer could be zero.
Term
 Validity of Measures
Definition
 Exists when a measure actually measures what we think it does.
Term
 Face Validity
Definition
 It appears to measure the concept of interest, if it obviously pertains to the meaning of the concept of interest. The type of validity that exists when an inspection of items used to measure a concept suggests that they are appropriate on their face.
Term
 Content Validity
Definition
 A measure has this if it covers the full range of the concept's meaning. The type of validity that exists when the full range of a concept's meaning is covered by the measure.
Term
 Criterion Validity
Definition
 Achieved when scores obtained on one measure can be accurately compared to those obtained with a more direct or already validated measure of the same phenomenon.
Term
 Construct Validity
Definition
 Social researchers strive for this when no clear criterion exists for validation purposes. Researchers agree on certain indicators to verify concept. The type of validity that is established by showing that a measure is related to other measures as specified in a theory.
Term
 Measure Reliability
Definition
 When a measure yields consistent scores or observations of a given phenomenon on different occasions. A prerequisite for measurement validity.
Term
 Survey Research
Definition
 Research in which information is obtained from a sample of individuals through their responses to questions about themselves or others.
Term
 Why use surveys?
Definition
 The versatility, efficiency, and generalizability of the data.
Term
 Versatility (Features of Survey Research)
Definition
 Having the ability to be used for just about anything, any topic, any subject.
Term
 Efficiency (Features of Survey Research)
Definition
 Ability to be done quickly and easily.
Term
 Generalizability (Features of Survey Research)
Definition
 Term used to describe how a survey can be give to many people.
Term
 Open Ended Questions
Definition
Term
 Closed Ended Questions
Definition
 Researcher forces respondents to answer a certain way. Makes it easier and quicker to analyze data, but may not have all the potential options for respondents to choose from.
Term
 Demographic Questions
Definition
 Asked to provide basic descriptions relevant to the members of the population in the study.
Term
 Filter Questions
Definition
 A survey question used to identify a subset of respondents who then are asked other questions.
Term
 Principles for writing good questions
Definition
 Write clear and meaningful questions, avoid confusing phrasing (double negatives, cultural context, slang, etc.) and jargon (legal terms, recidivism, and penal codes), minimize the risk of bias (leading questions, negative associated terms).
Term
Definition
 A question which contains a controversial or unjustified assumption.
Term
 Mutually exclusive
Definition
 A variable's attributes or values where every case can be classified as having only one attribute.
Term
 Mutually exhaustive
Definition
 A variable's attributes or values when every case can be classified into one of the categories.
Term
 Fence-Sitting
Definition
 Survey respondents who see themselves as being neutral on an issue and choose a middle (neutral) response that is offered.
Term
 Floating
Definition
 Survey respondents who provide an opinion on a topic in response to a closed-ended question that doesn't include a “don't know” option, but will choose “don't know” if it is available.
Term
 Mailed Surveys (Benefits)
Definition
 Confidential, able to send to a large sample, cluster sampling capabilities, more control.
Term
 Mailed Surveys (Drawbacks)
Definition
 Expensive, people won't return it, extra work for respondents.
Term
Definition
Term
Definition
 Could be biased, influences on honest due to the lack of space. Lacks confidentiality.
Term
 Telephone Surveys (Benefits)
Definition
 Able to perform random sampling
Term
 Telephone Surveys (Drawbacks)
Definition
 Biased, more likely to get older respondents, not a representative sample.
Term
 In-Person Surveys (Benefits)
Definition
 Respondent response is very high and ability to ask more questions and be more detailed and complex. Considered the best survey design.
Term
 In-Person Surveys (Drawbacks)
Definition
 Very expensive, time consuming process, and respondents may not be truthful when asking certain questions.
Term
 Electronic Surveys (Benefits)
Definition
 Easy, quick, and inexpensive.
Term
 Electronic Surveys (Drawbacks)
Definition
 Not representative sample as not everyone is technologically equipped or capable, and also young people tend to answer more than older people.
Term
 Participant Observation (Type of Field Research)
Definition
 Develop sustained relationship with people while they go about their normal activities. Researchers must determine how much involvement is needed and appropriate. Used when answers can't be told through a questionnaire, where one has to experience to understand.
Term
 Complete Observation (Type of Field Research)
Definition
 Researcher tries to see things as they happen without actually participating in or disrupting these events. Subjects may not be aware they are being studied. Common when observing specific types of events and behaviors that occur in pubilc.
Term
 Covert Participation (Type of Field Research)
Definition
 Research operates as fully functioning members of the group or social setting. Most people being studied are not aware of being studied. Problems with ethical concerns because of lack of consent. Must keep the “act” up, sometimes difficult to record. If identity is exposed, may be dangerous. May also lose objectivity and become too involved.
Term
 Field Research (Type of Qualitative Method)
Definition
 Research in which natural social processes are studied as they happen and left relatively undisturbed.
Term
 Intensive Interviewing (Type of Qualitative Method)
Definition
 A qualitative method that involves open-ended, relatively unstructured questioning in which the interviewer seeks in-depth information on the interviewee's feelings, experiences, and perceptions.
Term
 Focus Groups (Type of Qualitative Method)
Definition
 A qualitative method that involves unstructured group interviews in which a leader encourage discussion among participants on the topics of interest.
Term
 Strategies for Qualitative Research
Definition
 Learn about the setting of the field, find someone to get your foot in the door and show you the ropes. Develop and maintain relationships. Sampling people and events. Take notes while observing as the many way of collecting data. Have systematic observations.
Term
 Analyzing qualitative data
Definition
 Documentation of data and process data collection, organization/categorization of the data into concepts. Connection of the data to show how one concept influences another. Analyze words, contexts, internal consistency, frequency, extensiveness, demeanor of people. Have reflexivity, provide one perspective to allow other researchers to evaluate findings.
Term
 Ethical issues in qualitative research
Definition
 Privacy, confidentiality, and anonymity. Intervention and advocacy. Research integrity and quality. Ownership of data and conclusions.
Term
 Secondary data
Definition
 Data someone else collected. Using pre-existing data in a different way of to answer a different research question than intended by those who collected the data.
Term
 Why were use secondary data?
Definition
 Saves time that would otherwise be spent collecting data and, particularly in the case of quantitative data, provides larger and higher-quality databases that would be unfeasible for any individual researcher to collect on their own. In addition, analysts of social and economic change consider this essential, since it is impossible to conduct a new survey that can adequately capture past change and/or developments.
Term
 Historical events (ways to analyze secondary data)
Definition
 Research in which social events of only one time period in the past are studied. Cross sectional examination of something that occurred in the past. May be a case study of important event to examining it potential long term importance.
Term
 Content analysis (ways to analyze secondary data)
Definition
 A research method for systematically analyzing and making inferences from text.
Term
 Crime Mapping (ways to analyze secondary data)
Definition
 Provided visual and statistical analysis of the spatial nature of crime and other events. Allows linking crime data to other data allowing for relationships between variables to be established. Provides maps to visually communicate analysis results.
Term
 Challenges of Secondary Data
Definition
 Interpretations are within the context of the studies. May have biased telling of stories, based on the biases of someone else.
Term
 Evaluation of research quality
Definition
 Application of social research techniques to assess social programs and policies. Allows us to see if a program or policy is working and how it is working. Needs to be systematically evaluated regardless of relation to people, addresses accountability, evaluate using multiple methods.
Term
 Needs Assessment (Evaluation research)
Definition
 Asks if the program is needed? Is an existing program still needed?
Term
 Process Evaluation (Evaluation Research)
Definition
 How does the program operate? Is it doing what it says it does? May be conducted in real time and include program improvements. Typically collects both quantitative and qualitative data.
Term
 Impact/Outcome Evaluation (Evaluation Research)
Definition
 Did program have intended consequences?
Term
 Outcome (Evaluation Research)
Definition
 The effect on clients.
Term
 Impact (Evaluation Research)
Definition
 The effect on a larger system or community.
Term
 Efficiency Study (Evaluation Research)
Definition
 Do financial benefits of a program offset the costs of providing the program? Focus on cost-benefit or cost-effectiveness. Requires identification and reassessment of costs and benefits in dollars. Data evaluations of money or numbers of people.
Term
 Evidence based practices & policies
Definition
 Policies are based on a systematic review of available evidence and evaluation research. Research has vast potential to impact policy, but agencies are under increasing pressure to enact policy that is based on empirical evidence.
Term
 Ethical Issues in Evaluation
Definition
 Most issues concern outcome and impact studies. Issues are somewhat different from other research. Issues related to clients, design and conduct, and use of results.
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