Term

Definition
observation that is assumed to be evidence of the attributes or properties of some phenomenon 


Term

Definition
single indicator of variable 


Term

Definition
composite of multiple items 


Term

Definition
bathroom scale (x) = actual weight (t) + clothes (e) 


Term

Definition
Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Ratio 


Term
Nominal scale of measurement 

Definition
unordered, sex (0=male, 1=female) 


Term
Ordinal scale of measurement 

Definition
ordering of categories, NOT equal spaced (1st, 2nd, 3rd) 


Term

Definition
in order, equally spaced (IQ) 


Term

Definition
equally spaced, absolute 0 


Term

Definition
Does what you claim you're testing actually test what you're measuring? 


Term

Definition
does the content of the test sample all parts of the domain 


Term
criterionrelated validity 

Definition
does this measure correlate with other known tests that measure this idea? 


Term
Construct validity: discriminate validity 

Definition
correlation between measure and another unrelated construct 


Term
construct validity: convergent validity 

Definition
correlation between measure and another measure that measures the same thing 


Term
Threat to Construct validity 

Definition
unreliable scores, poor construct definition, construct confounding, monomethod bias, monooperation bias, evaluation apprehension 


Term

Definition
consistent each time it's used 


Term
reliability: internal consistency 

Definition
split scale in half, give each half to group, compare halves and get correlation. if r=.80 or better, it's reliable 


Term

Definition
A comes before B, A covaries with B, and no other explanations are possible 


Term

Definition
inference about observed covariation between treatment and outcome reflect a CAUSAL relationship 


Term
Threats to Internal Validity 

Definition
ambiguous temporal precedence, history, maturation, regression, attrition, testing, instrumentation, selection 


Term
Ambiguous Temporal Precedence (Threat to Internal Validity) 

Definition


Term
History (Threat to internal validity) 

Definition
events happening at same time as treatment that may change outcome 


Term
Maturation (threat to internal validity) 

Definition
natural changes over time (height/weight, IQ) 


Term
Regression (threat to internal validity) 

Definition


Term
Attrition (threat to internal validity) 

Definition
experimental mortality (dropout) 


Term
Testing (threat to internal validity) 

Definition


Term
Instrumentation (threat to internal validity) 

Definition
measure may change over time  because of researcher perhaps 


Term
selection (threat to internal validity) 

Definition
change may be due to conditions (Chicago) 


Term

Definition
each element of population has same chance of inclusion 


Term
random sampling (type of probability sampling) 

Definition
same chance of getting sampled 


Term
stratified random sampling 

Definition
Grouping population in smaller subgroups (strata) and sampling randomly from strata)
function: reducing sampling error 


Term

Definition
AKA cluster sampling, multistage sampling big area, then smaller, then smaller, etc 


Term

Definition
no intent to generalize, focused on process, etc. 


Term
availability sampling (nonprobability sampling) 

Definition


Term
purposive sampling (nonprobability sampling) 

Definition


Term
dimensional sampling (nonprobability sampling) 

Definition
what social research actually uses mostly 


Term

Definition
can you generalize to other populations? 


Term
Threats to external validity 

Definition
interaction of causal relationship with UNITS, TREATMENT VARIATIONS, OUTCOMES, SETTINGS 


Term
interaction w/units threat to external validity 

Definition
only found effective on some people 

