# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

CPSY 653
Midterm
39
Other
02/25/2013

Term
 indicator
Definition
 observation that is assumed to be evidence of the attributes or properties of some phenomenon
Term
 item
Definition
 single indicator of variable
Term
 index/scale
Definition
 composite of multiple items
Term
 x = t + e
Definition
 bathroom scale (x) = actual weight (t) + clothes (e)
Term
 levels of measurement
Definition
 Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Ratio
Term
 Nominal scale of measurement
Definition
 unordered, sex (0=male, 1=female)
Term
 Ordinal scale of measurement
Definition
 ordering of categories, NOT equal spaced (1st, 2nd, 3rd)
Term
 Interval
Definition
 in order, equally spaced (IQ)
Term
 ratio
Definition
 equally spaced, absolute 0
Term
 Construct Validity
Definition
 Does what you claim you're testing actually test what you're measuring?
Term
 content validity
Definition
 does the content of the test sample all parts of the domain
Term
 criterion-related validity
Definition
 does this measure correlate with other known tests that measure this idea?
Term
 Construct validity: discriminate validity
Definition
 correlation between measure and another unrelated construct
Term
 construct validity: convergent validity
Definition
 correlation between measure and another measure that measures the same thing
Term
 Threat to Construct validity
Definition
 unreliable scores, poor construct definition, construct confounding, monomethod bias, mono-operation bias, evaluation apprehension
Term
 Reliability
Definition
 consistent each time it's used
Term
 reliability: internal consistency
Definition
 split scale in half, give each half to group, compare halves and get correlation. if r=.80 or better, it's reliable
Term
 Internal Validity
Definition
 A comes before B, A covaries with B, and no other explanations are possible
Term
 Internal Validity
Definition
 inference about observed covariation between treatment and outcome reflect a CAUSAL relationship
Term
 Threats to Internal Validity
Definition
 ambiguous temporal precedence, history, maturation, regression, attrition, testing, instrumentation, selection
Term
 Ambiguous Temporal Precedence (Threat to Internal Validity)
Definition
 chicken or egg?
Term
 History(Threat to internal validity)
Definition
 events happening at same time as treatment that may change outcome
Term
 Maturation(threat to internal validity)
Definition
 natural changes over time(height/weight, IQ)
Term
 Regression(threat to internal validity)
Definition
 look for outliers
Term
 Attrition(threat to internal validity)
Definition
 experimental mortality (dropout)
Term
 Testing(threat to internal validity)
Definition
 because of practice
Term
 Instrumentation (threat to internal validity)
Definition
 measure may change over time - because of researcher perhaps
Term
 selection(threat to internal validity)
Definition
 change may be due to conditions (Chicago)
Term
 Probability Sampling
Definition
 each element of population has same chance of inclusion
Term
 random sampling (type of probability sampling)
Definition
 same chance of getting sampled
Term
 stratified random sampling
Definition
 Grouping population in smaller subgroups (strata) and sampling randomly from strata)function: reducing sampling error
Term
 Area Sampling
Definition
 AKA cluster sampling, multi-stage samplingbig area, then smaller, then smaller, etc
Term
 non-probability sampling
Definition
 no intent to generalize, focused on process, etc.
Term
 availability sampling(nonprobability sampling)
Definition
Term
 purposive sampling(nonprobability sampling)
Definition
 judgmental
Term
 dimensional sampling(nonprobability sampling)
Definition
 what social research actually uses mostly
Term
 external validity
Definition
 can you generalize to other populations?
Term
 Threats to external validity
Definition
 interaction of causal relationship with UNITS, TREATMENT VARIATIONS, OUTCOMES, SETTINGS
Term
 interaction w/unitsthreat to external validity
Definition
 only found effective on some people
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