Shared Flashcard Set



Additional Psychology Flashcards




Ingraham (2000)
  • culture is believed to influence all aspects of the consultative relationship
  • consultant is advised to explore individual differences, as well as cultural issues, to prevent overgeneralization about the cultural underpinnings at play
  • five compenents of multicultural school consulatation
  • 1. domains of consultant learning and development
  • 2. domains of consultee learning and development
  • 3. cultural variations in the consultation constellation
  • 4. contextual and power influences
  • 5. hypothesized methods for support consultee and client success
Gresham (1989)
  • treatment integrity refers to the degree to which a consultation plan is implemented as intended
  • factors related to treatment integrity in school settings
  • 1. complexity of treatments
  • 2. time required to implement treatments
  • 3. materials resources required
  • 4. number of treatment ages
  • 5. perceived and actual effectiveness
  • Three steps in designing a direct observation system for treatment integrity assessment
  • 1. treatment components must be clearly specified in operational terms
  • 2. record of occurance and non-occurance of each treatment component
  • 3. calculate percentage of treatment components implemented by consultees
Gresham & Lopez (1996)
  • social validity refers to the assessment of the social significant of the goals of an intervention procedure, the social acceptability of intervention procedures to attain those goals and the evaluation of social importance of the effects produced by the interverntion procedures
  • behavior goals in consultation should be selected based on functional/habilitative criterion
  • practical recommedations for social validation--use developmental norms, use functional approach, use semi-structured interviews, use relevant judges, use archival data, use behavioral markers, use concurrent choices, use integrity assessments; use combined social validation procedures.  
  • social significant = PII
  • social acceptability = Px Analysis and Plan implementation
  • Social importance = plan evaluation
Sheridan (2000)
  • unique challenges in each stage of consultation when working with diverse consultees.
  • problem ID--more beneficial to identify problems as a mismatch between the child, his uniqueness, the primary caregivers, and the environments in which they're embedded
  • problem analysis and plan development--consideration of the availablity of resources necessary to implement the intervention at home
  • relational features inherant in multicultural CBC--trust, acknowledgement of diversity, technical jargon, effect of interpreters
Reinke, Lewis-Palmer, & Merrell (2008)
  • Classroom-Check-Up (CCU)--emphasizes classwide change and motivational enhancement strategies informed by social psychology literature
  • components of CCU--assessing the classroom; feedback; menu of options; intervention selection; teacher self-monitoring of treatment integrity
  • CCU plus visual performance feedback was most useful in improving teacher implementation of classroom management strategies
Features of the Consultative Relationship
  • triadic--consultant, consultee, client
  • working relationship is coordinate and non-hierarchal
  • consultation discussions based on consultee work-related challenges
  • consultant has no administrative responsibility for or formal authority over the consultee
  • consultee retains the freedom to accept or reject the recommendations of the consultant
  • condidentiality between the consultee and consultant
  • dual purpose--assistance with a current problem and skill development
sources of client difficulty
  • lack of knowledge
  • lack of skill
  • lack of objectivity
  • lack of self-confidence
  • these can all be souces of teacher resistance
Problem Identification Interview
  • to identify a target behavior and define it in overtly observable terms
  • to obtain tentative estimates of how often the behavior occurs and under what conditions
  • to begin ongoing data collection for us in evaluating treatment outcomes
Problem Analysis Interview
  • use of the baseline data that are collected to establish goals for behavior change
  • conducting a functional assessment and generating hypotheses about why problem behavior is occuring
  • designing and implementing an intervention plan
Problem Evaluation Interview
  • to determine if the goals established during the PAI were met and if the intervention plan was sufficiently effective to warrant its continuation
  • requires that the frequency, intensity, or duration of the target behavior during intervention be compared to the goal established at baseline
  • two issues to consider regarding intervention effectiveness
  • 1. was the intervention implemented as indended (treatment integrity)?
  • 2. was the intervention responsible for improvements in the student behavior?
Gonzalez et al. (2004)

identified 9 variables to be directly or indirectly related to teacher resistance

  • teacher efficacy
  • teachers' perception of their own problem solving skills
  • teacher's perceptions of the school psychologists role
  • teacher-school psychologist similarities
  • school psychologists problem solving skills
  • school psychologist's interpersonal relational skills
  • principal's support for consultation
  • adequacy of time availability for consulting
  • opportunity to reciprocate
  • administred a survey including these 9 variables to investigate teachers' actual reported participation in rather than state preference for evaluations of consultants
  • Also highlighted the cost and reward of consultation
  • Results:  contingencies must be positive enough to reinforce the continued use of consultation--rewards must outweigh the costs
  • number of hours school psychologist in the building--increas in consultation use
  • all other measures or variables were not signifcantly linked to the liklihood of participation in cnosultation
Witt, Moe, Gutkin and Andrews (1984)

examined the manner in which the consultant communicates

  • consultees prefer "common sense" language to psychological jargon
Erchel (1987)

found that consultants who are directive in consultation interview are more effective than consultants who are not directive

  • Erchel interpreted these findings by explaining that collaboration is not effective and a key part of consultation and that consultative relationships are more cooperative than collaborative
  • Others, such as Gutkin (1997; 1999--review paper) challenged this idea by stating that collboration and control are not mutually exclusive constructs--suggested that consultation could be both collaborative and directive. 
Noell et al. (2005)
  • Performance feedback vs. commitment emphasis study
  • PFB found in increase integrity and found that implementation of the intervention with high integrity maintained in the PFB group
Sheridan, Welch & Orme (1996)
  • study examining consultation outcome literature
  • reported that 76% of the studies reviewed demonstrated at least some positive outcomes
  • when outcomes were analyzed by model--behavioral consultation outcomes appeared most favorable with nearly all (95%) of studies using behavioral consultation reporting positive findings
  • negative findings were foudn in studies that did not specify a model of consultation
  • clearly articulated model is important for increasing positive outcomes of consutlation.

Bergan & Kratochwill (1990)

Bergan (1977)


seminal works in behavioral consultation--behavioral consultation delivered through four step problem solving process

  • This model combines strategies and tactics of behavior analysis with a structured problem solving approach, uses behavioral technology to develop intervention plans, and employs the technology of behavior analysis to evaluate treatment outcomes
Sheridan, Kratcohwill and Bergan (1996)


  • promotes integrated services across homes, schools and community in both theory and practice
  • primary goals = bridge gap between home and school settings, maximize positive intervention effects within and across settings and promote generalization of the intervention effects across time
Wickstrom and Witt (1993)

Resistance = ANYTHING that impedes problem solving or plan implementation and ultimately problem resolution

  • the construct of resistance is relevant to multiple levels of prevention--all factors interfering with achievement of goals
Teacher Resistance

operating contingencies that are either too punishing or inadequately reinforcing to the teacher

  • Gonzalez et al. (2004)--costs/rewards of consultation

Reschly and Wilson (1995)


Gutkin and Curtis (1990)

behavioral consultation model is reported as the most preferred model of consultation among school psychologists
Gutkin (1986)
  • Article relevant to teacher resistance literature
  • identified predictors of consultation success
  • 1. consultant's knowledge and applications of psychology principles
  • 2. consultant communication skills
  • 3. consultant interest and enthusiasm
all will increase the success of consultative relationship--if not in place may run into teacher resistance

Noell and Witt (1995)


"A critical evaluation of..."


Identified five assumptions underlying behavioral consultation

  • consultative services are more cost effective than direct consultation
  • collaborative consultation are more effective than expert consultation
  • verbal interactions with teachers result in significant behavior change
  • skills learned during the consultative interaction will generalize
  • direct contact with the client are unneccessary for behavior change to occur
Watson, Sterling, and McDade (1997) added 4 additional myths
  • BC is based on scientific analysis of behavior
  • integrity of the consultation process is important
  • treatment integrity is related to treatment acceptablity
  • consumer satisfaction is important (social validity)

Caplan's Mental Health Model (1963)

Basic Assumptions


1. both intrapsychic and environmental factors are important in explaining and change behavior

2. more than technical expertise is important in designing effective interventions--a consultee's decision to adopt an intervention is not based soley on its effectivenss (treatment acceptability, social validity)

3. learning and generalization occur when consultees retain responsibilty for action

4. mental health consultation is a supplement to other problem-solving mechanisms within an organization

5. consultee attitudes and affect are important in consultation, but cannot be dealt with directly

Bergan's Behavioral Model of consultation--basic assumptions
  1.  The consultee is an active participant in the process in terms of designing the plan to solve the problem, implementing the plan, and evaluating its effectiveness
  2.   The model can develop problem-solving skills in the client by having the consultant involve him or her in the same capacity as the consultee.
  3.  Model provides a knowledge link between the consultant and consultee.

a.       Consultants provide a medium through which knowledge procedures can communicate information to knowledge consumers

  1. 4.      Behavioral consultation attempts to link decision-making to empirical evidence

a.       Decisions relating to the course of action to pursue are based on direct observations of the client’s behavior and scientific findings regarding behavior change.

  1. 5.      The model defines problems presented in consultation as residing outside the character of the client
  2. 6.      The model stresses the role of environmental factors in controlling behaviora
  3. 7.      Focuses its evaluation on goal attainment and plan effectiveness rather that on client characteristics

a.       What has been accomplished during consultation vs. what is wrong with the client


Bass 1981, Yukl & Falbe, 1991


a.       Soft Social power bases: More subtle, non-coercive, and positive forms of influence

                                                                                       i.      Positive expert,

                                                                                     ii.      positive referent,

                                                                                    iii.      direct informational

                                                                                   iv.      legitimate dependence

                                                                                     v.      personal reward

b.      Hard Power bases: More overt and punitive forms of influence.

                                                                                       i.      Coercive,

                                                                                     ii.      Legitimate reciprocity

                                                                                    iii.      Legitimate equity

                                                                                   iv.      Impersonal reward


French and Raven (1959) then revised by Raven (1965)


1. Coercive Power:  based on consultee’s perception that consultant can punish consultee if he does not comply

2. Reward Power: Consultee believes Consultant can reward him if he complies

3. Legitimate Power: Consultee feel obligated to accept influence because he believes consultant has a legitimate right to influence him, perhaps because of the cunsultant’s role or position.

4.Expert Power: Consultee believes that consultant possesses knowledge or expertise.

5.Referent Power: Consultee identifies with consultant or desires such identification

6.Informational Power: Consultant has information that the consultee wants/needs. Consultant provides consultee with logical explanation or new information favoring change.    


a)      Differentiate between expert and informational power – in both types consultee does what consultant suggests because he thinks it’s the best way to solve the problem.  But in expert power consultee doesn’t necessarily understand what consultant suggests, does it because he believes consultant is an expert so he must be right. However, in informational power consultee gains new information and sees for himself that this is the best way to address the problem.  

b)      Also – behavior change produced from informational power is most likely to be maintained without continued support because consultee has internalized the new behavior and will continue in that manner.

White and Kratochwill, 2009

practice guidelines in school psychology--issues and directions of EBI

  • discussion on evidence based interventions.  
  • outline of practice guidelines for school psychologists to help improve their clinical practice
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