# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Con.Phys.
I hate this subject!!!!!
173
Physics
10/10/2007

Term
 Newtons second law
Definition
 the acceleration produced by net force on an object is the same direction as the net forceand is inversely proportional to the mass of the object.
Term
 air resistence
Definition
 is the friction acting on something moving through the air is a vrey common form of fluid friction.
Term
 Fluid
Definition
 are liquids and gases
Term
 free-body diagram
Definition
 Is a diagram showing all the forces actin on an object
Term
 inversely
Definition
 Is that two values change in opposite directions
Term
 Pascal
Definition
 a pascal is one newtion per square meter
Term
 pressure
Definition
 is the amount of force per unit of area
Term
 terminal speed
Definition
 is when acceleration terminates
Term
 terminal velocity
Definition
 is when an object is moving downward
Term
 Newtons Law #1
Definition
 Every object continues in a state of rest or of motion in a straight line, at constant speed, unless it is compelled to change that state by forces exerted upon it.
Term
 Newtons Law #2
Definition
 The acceleration produced by a net force on an object is directly porportional to the magnitude of the net force, is in the same direction as the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object.                                                  Fnet=ma
Term
 Newtons Law #3
Definition
 Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first object.
Term
 Acceleration
Definition
 a change in velocity
Term
 average speed
Definition
 the average distance traveled
Term
 elapsed time
Definition
 the mesured duration  of an event
Term
 instantaneous speed
Definition
 Is the speed at any one moment
Term
 rate
Definition
Term
 relative
Definition
Term
 speed
Definition
 How fast something is moving; the path distance moved per time. The magnitude of the velocity vector.
Term
 velocity
Definition
 Speed together with direction.
Term
 component
Definition
 One of the vectors often mutually perpendicular whose sum is a resultant vector.
Term
 projectile
Definition
 ANy object that moves through the air or through space, acted on only by gravity (and air resistance, if any)
Term
 revolution
Definition
 Motion of an object turning around an axis outside the object
Term
 resultant
Definition
 The vector sum of two or more component vectors.
Term
 satalite
Definition
 An object that falls around earth or some other body rather than falling into it.
Term
 scalar vector
Definition
Term
 Wave
Definition
 Transfers energy, there are two types of waves, Transverse, and Longitudinal
Term
 Medium
Definition
 what the wave travels in
Term
 Pulse
Definition
 a single crest or trough or a single compression or rarefaction
Term
 Wave train
Definition
 Many pulses together
Term
 transverse wave
Definition
 any particle on the wave moves perpendicular to the direction of the waves motion
Term
 Crest
Definition
 Upward displacement on a transverse wave
Term
 Trough
Definition
 Downward displacement on a transverse wave
Term
 equilibrium
Definition
 where the particles are normally located
Term
 amplitude
Definition
 Maximum displacement on any particle along the wave
Term
 Frequency
Definition
 Number or cycles per seconds, units for frequency are hertz
Term
 Speed
Definition
 Is distance over time the wave travels
Term
 Period
Definition
 Time for one complete oscillation, time for one complete wave cycle.
Term
 Wavelength
Definition
 distance from crest to crest or trough to trough in a transverse wave, or compression to compression or rarefaction to rarefaction in a longitudinal wave
Term
 Compression
Definition
 An area of a longitudinal wave where the particles are pushed together or compressed
Term
 Rarefaction
Definition
 An area of a longitudinal wave where the particles are spread apart
Term
 Inverse square Law
Definition
 A physical quantity varies inversely as another quantity squared. Example: Illumination varies inversely as the square of the distance from the source.
Term
 Law of Universal Gravitation
Definition
 For any pair of objects, each object attracts the other object with a force that is directly proportional to the product of the masses of the objects, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers of mass.
Term
 Perturbation
Definition
 The deviation of an orbiting object from its path around a center of force caused by the action of an additional center of force
Term
 Universal Gravitational Constant
Definition
 The constant G in the equation for Newton's law of universal gravitation; measures the strength of gravity
Term
 Black Hole
Definition
 A mass that has collapsed to so great a density that its enormous local gravitational field prevents light from escaping
Term
 Force Field
Definition
 That which exists in the space surrounding a mass, electric charge, or magnet,  so that another mass, electric charge, or magnet introduced to this region will experience a force. Examples of force fields are gravitational fields, electric fields, and magnet fields
Term
 gravitational field
Definition
 A force field that exists in the space around every mass or group of masses.
Term
 lunar eclipse
Definition
 The cutoff of light from the full moon when earth is directly between the sun and the moon, so that earth's shadow is cast on the moon
Term
 neap tide
Definition
 A tide that occurs when the moon is halfway between a new moon and a full moon, in either direction. The tides due to the sun and the moon partly cancel, so that the high tides are lower than average and the low tides are not as low as average
Term
 solar eclipse
Definition
 The cutoff of light from the sun to any observer on Earth when the moon is directly between the sun and Earth
Term
 spring tide
Definition
 A high or low tide that occurs when the sun, earth, and moon are all lined up so that the tides due to the sun and moon coincide, making the high tides higher than average and the low tides lower than average
Term
 weightless
Definition
 The condition of free fall toward or around earth, in which an object experiences no support force (and exerts no force on a scale.)
Term
 Apogee
Definition
 The point in a satellite's elliptical orbit farthest from the center of earth
Term
 ellipse
Definition
 AN oval-shaped curve that is the path of a point that moves such that the sum of its distances from two fixed points (foci) is constant
Term
 escape speed
Definition
 The minimum speed necessary for an object to escape permanently from a gravitation field that holds it.
Term
 focus
Definition
 For an ellipse, one of the two points for which the sum of the distances to any point ont eh ellipse is constant. A atellite orbiting earth moves in an ellipse that has earth at one focus. For optics, the point where parallel light rays converge
Term
 perigee
Definition
 The point  in a sattelite's elliptical orbit where it is nearest the center of Earth
Term
 period
Definition
 The time required for a complete orbit, the time required for a pendelum to make one to-and-fro swing. In general, the time required to complete a single cycle.
Term
 antinodes
Definition
 The positions on a standing wave where the largest amplitudes occur.
Term
 blue shift
Definition
 An increase in the measured frequency of light from an approaching source; called the blue shift because the apparent increase is toward the high-frequency, or blue, end of the color specturm. Also occurs when an observer approaches a source.
Term
 bow wave
Definition
 The V shaped wave produced by an object moving ona liquid surface faster than the wave speed
Term
 constructive interface
Definition
 Addition of two or more waves when wave crests overlap to produce a resulting waveof increased amplitude
Term
 crest
Definition
 One of the places ina wave where the wave is highest or the disturbance is greatest
Term
 destructive interference
Definition
 Combination of waves where crests of one wave overlap troughs of another, resulting ina wave of decreased amplitude.
Term
 doppler effect
Definition
 The change in frequency of a wave due to the motion of the source or of the reciever
Term
 in phase
Definition
 Term applied  to two or more waves whose crests (and troughs) arrive at a place at the same time so that their effects reinforce each other.
Term
 interference pattern
Definition
 A pattern formed by the overlapping of two or more waves that arrive in a region at the same time.
Term
 longitudinal wave
Definition
 A wave in which the vibration is in the same direction as as that in which the wave is traveling, rather than at right angles.
Term
 node
Definition
 Any part of a standing wave that remains stationary.
Term
 out of phase
Definition
 Term applied to two waves for which the crest of one wave arrives at a point at the same time that a trough of the second wave arrives. Their effects cancel each other.
Term
 red shift
Definition
 A decrease in the measured frequency of light (or other radiation) from a receding source; called the red shift because the decrease is toward the low-frequency, or red, end of the color spectrum.
Term
 shockwave
Definition
 A cone-shaped wave produced by an object moving at supersonic speed though a fluid
Term
 simple harmonic motion
Definition
 Periodic motion in which acceleration is proportional to the distance from an equilibrium position and is directed toward the equilibrium
Term
 sine curve
Definition
 A curve whose shape represents the crests and troughs of a wave, astraced out byh a swinging pendelum that  drops a trail of sand over a moving conveyor belt
Term
 sonic boom
Definition
 The sharp crack heard when th shock wave that sweeps behind a supersonic aircraft reaches the listener
Term
 standing wave
Definition
 Wave in which parts of the wave remain stationary and the wave appears not to be traveling. The result of interference beween an incident wave and a reflected wave.
Term
 transverse wave
Definition
 A wave with vibration at right angles to the direction the wave is traveling
Term
 trough
Definition
 One of the places in a wave where the wave is lowest, or the disturbance in greatest, in the opposite direction from the crest
Term
 vibration
Definition
 An oscillation or repeating back-and-forth motion, about an equilibrium
Term
 wave
Definition
 A "wiggle in space and time"; a disturbance tht repeats regularly in space and time and that is transmitted progresivly from one place to the next with no actual transport of matter.
Term
 wavelength
Definition
 the distnace from the top of the crest of a wave to the top of the following crest,or equivalently, the distance between successive identical parts of the wave.
Term
 Beats
Definition
 A throbbing variation in the loudness of sound caused by interference when two tones of slightly different frequencies are sounded together
Term
 Compression
Definition
 In mechanics, the act of squeezing  material and reducing its volume. In sound, a pulse of compressed air (or other matter); opposite of rarefaction
Term
 Forced Vibration
Definition
 The vibration of an object that is made to vibrate by another vibrating object that is near by. The sounding board in a musical instrument amplifies the sound through forced vibration.
Term
 infrasonic
Definition
 Term applied to sound pich too low to be heard by the human ear, that is, below 200 Hz
Term
 natural frequency
Definition
 A frequency at which an elastic object, once energized, will vibrate. Minimum energy is required to continue vibration at that frequency. Also called resonant frequency.
Term
 pitch
Definition
 Term that refers to ow high or low sound frequencies appear to be.
Term
 resonance
Definition
 A phenomenonthat occurs when the frequency of forced vibrations on an object matches he objects natural frequency and a dramatic increase in amplitude results.
Term
 ultrasonic
Definition
 Term applied to soyund frequencies above 20,000 hertz, the normal upper limit of human hearing.
Term
 acceleration
Definition
 the rate at which velocity is changing. The change may be in magnitude direction, or both
Term
 average speed
Definition
 Path distance divided by time interval
Term
 elapsed time
Definition
 The time that has passed since the beginning of an event
Term
 free fall
Definition
 Motion under the influence of gravitational foce only
Term
 Instantaneous speed
Definition
 Speed at any instant of  time.
Term
 rate
Definition
 In physics, how fast something happens, or how much something changes per unit of time; a change in a  quantity divided by the the time it takes for the change to occur
Term
 relative
Definition
 Regarded in relation to something else. Depends on point of view, or frame of referance. Sometimes referred to as "with respect to"
Term
 speed
Definition
 how fast something is moving; the path distance moved per time. The magnitude of the velocity vector
Term
 velocity
Definition
 Speed together with the direction of motion
Term
 projectile
Definition
 Any object that moves through the air or through space, acted on only by gravity, (and air resistance if any)
Term
 resolution
Definition
 The process of resolving a vector into component. In optics a measure of how well closely adjacent optical images are distinguished
Term
 resultant
Definition
 The vectior sum of two or more component vectors
Term
 sattelite
Definition
 An object that falls around earth or some other body rather than falling into it
Term
 scalar quatity
Definition
 A quantity in physics, such as mass, volume, and time, that can be completely specified by its magnitude, and has no direction
Term
 vector
Definition
 an arrow whose length represents the magnitude of a quantity and whose direction represents the direction of the quantity.
Term
 vector quantity
Definition
 a quantity in physics such as a force that has both magnitude and direction
Term
 Equillibrium
Definition
 In general, a state of balance, a state of body on which no net force acts.
Term
 Force
Definition
 Any influence that tends to accelerate an object, a push or a pull, its measured in Newtons.
Term
 Friction
Definition
 The force that acts to resist the relative motion, of objects or materials of contact.
Term
 Inertia
Definition
 The reluctance of any body to change its shape of motion, mass is the measure of inertia.
Term
 Kilogram
Definition
 the fundamental SI unit of mass
Term
 Net Force
Definition
 The combinations of all the forces that act on an object
Term
 Mass
Definition
 A measure of an objects inertia, also a measure of matter in an object.
Term
 Newton
Definition
 SI unit of force
Term
 Normal Force
Definition
 For an object resting on a horazontal force its also known as the support force.
Term
 Support Force
Definition
 See normal force
Term
 Weight
Definition
 the force on a body due to the gravitational gravity. Also commonly known as Earth.
Term
 Air resistence
Definition
 Friction, or drag, that acts on something moving through the air.
Term
 fluid
Definition
 Anything htat flows; in particular, any liquid or gas.
Term
 Free-body diogram
Definition
 A diagram showing all the forces acting on an object
Term
 inversely
Definition
Term
 Newton's second law
Definition
 The acceleration produced by a net force on a body is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, is in the same direction as the net force, and is inverseluy proportional to the mass of the body.
Term
 pascal
Definition
 The SI unit of pressure. One pascal, (Symbol Pa) of pressure exerts a normal force of one newton per square meter.
Term
 terminal speed
Definition
 The speed at which the acceleration of a falling object is zero because friction balances the weight.
Term
 terminal velocity
Definition
 Terminal speed together with the direction of motion (down for falling objects.)
Term
 action force
Definition
 One pair of forces described in Newton's third law
Term
 Newton's third law
Definition
 Whenever one body exerts a force on a second body, the second body exerts an equal and opposite force on the first
Term
 interaction
Definition
 A mutual action between objects where each object exerts an equal and opposite force on the other
Term
 reaction force
Definition
 The force that is equal in strength and opposite in direction to the action force, which acts simultaneously on whatever is exerting the action force.
Term
 Axis
Definition
 The straight line around which an object may rotate or revolve. A horizontal or vertical reference line in a graph.
Term
 revolution
Definition
 Motion of an object turning around an axis outside the object
Term
 centrifugal force
Definition
 An apparent outward force on a rotating or revolving body. It is fictitious in the sense that it is not part of an interaction but is due to the tendency of a moving body to move in a straight-line path.
Term
 rotation
Definition
 The spinning motion that takes place when an object rotates about an axis located within the object usually an axis through the center of mass).
Term
 centripetal force
Definition
 A center directed force that causes an object to move in a curved (sometimes circular) path.
Term
 rotational speed
Definition
 The number of rotations or revolutions per unit of time; often measured in rotations or revolutions per second or per minute. (RPM)
Term
 linear speed
Definition
 the path distance movied per unit of time
Term
 tangential speed
Definition
 The speed of an object moving along a circular path
Term
 Conserved
Definition
 Term applied ot a physical quantity, such as momentum, energy, or electric charge, that remains unchanged during interactions.
Term
 elastic collision
Definition
 Collision in which colliding objects rebound without lasting deformation or heat generation.
Term
 Impulse
Definition
 Product of force and time interval during which the force acts. Impulse equals momentum change.
Term
 inelastic collision
Definition
 A collision in which the colliding objects become distorted and / or generate heat during the collision.
Term
 Law of conservation of momentum
Definition
 In the absencense of a net external force, the momentum of an object or system of objects us unchanged
Term
 Momentum
Definition
 The product of the mass and the velocity of an object (provided the speed is much less than the speed of light). Has magnitude and direction (a vector quantity). Also called Linear momentum.
Term
 Efficiancy
Definition
Term
 Energy
Definition
Term
 Fulcrum
Definition
Term
 Kinetic energy
Definition
Term
 Joule
Definition
Term
 Law of Conservation of Energy
Definition
Term
 Lever
Definition
Term
 Machine
Definition
Term
Definition
Term
 Mechanical Energy
Definition
Term
 Alternating Current
Definition
Term
 Ampere
Definition
Term
 Diode
Definition
Term
 direct current
Definition
Term
 Electric current
Definition
Term
 electric power
Definition
Term
 electric resistance
Definition
Term
 Ohm
Definition
 The SI unit of electric resistance. One ohm is the resistance of a device that draws a current of one ampere when a voltage of one volt is impressed across it.
Term
 Ohm's Law
Definition
 The statement that the current in a circuit is directly proportional to the voltage impressed across the circuit, and is inversely proportional to the resistance of the circuit.
Term
 Potential difference
Definition
 The diference in electric potential, between two points. Free charge flows when there is a difference, and will continue until both points reach a common potential.
Term
 Voltage source
Definition
 A device, such as a dry cell or generatior, that provides a potential difference.
Term
 Circuit
Definition
Term
 In parallel
Definition
Term
 In Series
Definition
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