Term

Definition
Tentative statement about how 2 variables are associated in larger populations. 


Term

Definition
no comparison or relationship between variables. Any difference in sample is random error 


Term

Definition
inferential statistic used to determine whether the mean for two groups of scores differs statistically and can be applied to entire population 


Term

Definition
IV: Categorical (2 variables) DV: Quantitative 


Term
TTest steps of hypothesis 

Definition
1. formulate H1 2. Formulate H0 3. Select stat sig difference (p<0.05) 4. select correct test 5. Test stats for significance 6. make decision based on stats if stat sig and on HO & H1 


Term
Statistically Significant 

Definition
Probability, the smaller the p, the more confident we are of legit difference 


Term
Significance level is same as 

Definition
Two tailed or P value must be below 0.05. Reject H1 if greater than 0.05. not statistically significant. How certain we are no relationship exists. 


Term

Definition
Degrees of freedom (df): N is considered T: Farther from zero = stronger P: lower than 0.05 


Term

Definition
Describes size of a difference of an association in STANDARDIZED unit. (magnitude of difference) COHNAN'S D. 


Term
Effect size measures for TTest: 

Definition
D = 0.20 (.15.39) SMALL EFFECT D = 0.50 (.40.74) MEDIUM EFFECT D = 0.80 (.751.09) LARGE EFFECT 


Term

Definition
Tells the magnitude of difference between two variables. If measures 0.05 very small or negligible effect. 


Term
P (stat. sig) is tied to.. 

Definition


Term

Definition
analysis used to measure strength of association between two quantitative variables. X scores tell us something about Y scores to help predictions 


Term
Chi Squared (x2) variables 

Definition
ID: Categorical DV: Categorical 


Term
R (Pearson's Correlation) variables 

Definition
ID: Quantitative DV: Quantitative 


Term

Definition
Graphical depiction of a correlation Y axis: DV (Vertical) X axis: ID (horizontal) 


Term
4 relationships of scatter plots 

Definition
1. No relation 2. Positive linear relation 3. Negative (Inverse) Relation 4. Curvilinear (nonlinear) 


Term

Definition
Knowing peoples level of variable X tells us NOTHING about variable y. Straight line. No shared Variance 


Term
Positive linear relationship 

Definition
as X increases, so does y. As X decreases, so does Y. The steeper the slope line, stronger the relationship 


Term
Negative (Inverse) relationship 

Definition
Scores move opposite of eachother, as X increases Y decrease, as Y increases X decreases. 


Term

Definition
relationship between X and Y is curved or it changes over time. Such as texting and driving (fear appeal works for certain amount of time until people ignore it) 


Term

Definition
Sad dog commercial, worrying too much about grades makes 2nd guess and change. 


Term

Definition
provides numerical estimate of direct and strength of the linear relationship between two variables 


Term
Pearson correlation (r) must be what two things?? 

Definition
Presumes relationship is linear Possible range (1.00+1.00): closer to 1 is a stronger relationship 


Term

Definition
sign of the correlation (+/) depicts the direction of the relationship between X and Y 


Term
Strength/what related to. 

Definition
size of correlation depicts the strength of relationship between X & Y AND related to effect size. 


Term

Definition
tells there is no relationship between X and Y complete overlap means will fall everytime! 


Term
"Rule of thumb" for interpreting r 

Definition
(Strength of relationship) r = 0.1 SMALL r = 0.24 MEDIUM r = 0.37 LARGE 


Term
Which is stronger? r = 0.25 or r = 0.47 

Definition


Term
Coefficient of determination is called what in SPSS? 

Definition


Term
Effect size for correlation (Coefficient of determination) 

Definition
must square the r (r2) % of variance in variable X that is shared by Y value. r2=0.06 means 6% of X is shared by Y. 


Term

Definition
exact percent of variance two scores share or the percent they move together 


Term
CORRELATION DOESN'T EQUAL CAUSE. why? 

Definition
just because there is a correlation between X and Y, by itself, doesn't show that X is the cause of Y 


Term
3 correlation doesnt equal cause reasons 

Definition
Co variation are X and Y related? Is there a relationship? Time order Does X come before Y in time Alternative explanations Is anything besides X causing Y? 


Term
Values needed in Correlation determination 

Definition
r: Strength of relationshpi r2: percent related X to Y N: sample size Sig fig: probability 


Term

Definition
inferential statistics used to address hypotheses nominal variables 


Term

Definition
IV: Nominal (2 categories) DV: Nominal (2 categories) 


Term
Statistical significance for chi square 

Definition
compares what we observe/actually see vs what we expect by chance/average to see 


Term
Degrees of freedom for chi test 

Definition
Found on SPSS output (Rows1)(Columns1) 


Term
Effect size measurement for chi test 

Definition


Term
Effect size for all three tests 

Definition
Correlation: r2 Chi: Cramers Ttest: Cohens 


Term

Definition
takes on value from 0 to 1 0= one variable has no impact on other 1= one variable totally determines the other 


Term
Rule values for Cramer's V 

Definition
0.10= SMALL EFFECT 0.24= MODERATE/MEDIUM EFFECT 0.37= LARGE EFFECT 

