# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

COM 210 Quantative test #2
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43
Agriculture
03/06/2013

Term
 Research Hypothesis
Definition
 Tentative statement about how 2 variables are associated in larger populations.
Term
 Null hypothesis
Definition
 no comparison or relationship between variables. Any difference in sample is random error
Term
 T-Test definition
Definition
 inferential statistic used to determine whether the mean for two groups of scores differs statistically and can be applied to entire population
Term
 T-test variables
Definition
 IV: Categorical (2 variables)DV: Quantitative
Term
 T-Test steps of hypothesis
Definition
 1. formulate H12. Formulate H03. Select stat sig difference (p<0.05)4. select correct test5. Test stats for significance6. make decision based on stats if stat sig and on HO & H1
Term
 Statistically Significant
Definition
 Probability, the smaller the p, the more confident we are of legit difference
Term
 Significance level is same as
Definition
 Two tailed or P value must be below 0.05. Reject H1 if greater than 0.05. not statistically significant. How certain we are no relationship exists.
Term
 T-test variables
Definition
 Degrees of freedom (df): N is consideredT: Farther from zero = stronger P: lower than 0.05
Term
 Effect Size for T-Test:
Definition
 Describes size of a difference of an association in STANDARDIZED unit. (magnitude of difference) COHNAN'S D.
Term
 Effect size measures for T-Test:
Definition
 D = 0.20 (.15-.39) SMALL EFFECTD = 0.50 (.4-0.74) MEDIUM EFFECTD = 0.80 (.75-1.09) LARGE EFFECT
Term
 Cohnen's D
Definition
 Tells the magnitude of difference between two variables. If measures 0.05 very small or negligible effect.
Term
 P (stat. sig) is tied to..
Definition
 sample size
Term
 Correlation Definition:
Definition
 analysis used to measure strength of association between two quantitative variables. X scores tell us something about Y scores to help predictions
Term
 Chi Squared (x2) variables
Definition
 ID: CategoricalDV: Categorical
Term
 R (Pearson's Correlation) variables
Definition
 ID: Quantitative DV: Quantitative
Term
 Scatter Plot: and axis
Definition
 Graphical depiction of a correlationY axis: DV (Vertical)X axis: ID (horizontal)
Term
 4 relationships of scatter plots
Definition
 1. No relation2. Positive linear relation3. Negative (Inverse) Relation4. Curvilinear (non-linear)
Term
 No relation relationship
Definition
 Knowing peoples level of variable X tells us NOTHING about variable y. Straight line. No shared Variance
Term
 Positive linear relationship
Definition
 as X increases, so does y. As X decreases, so does Y. The steeper the slope line, stronger the relationship
Term
 Negative (Inverse) relationship
Definition
 Scores move opposite of eachother, as X increases Y decrease, as Y increases X decreases.
Term
 Curvilinear (non-linear)
Definition
 relationship between X and Y is curved or it changes over time. Such as texting and driving (fear appeal works for certain amount of time until people ignore it)
Term
 Examples of curvilinear
Definition
Term
 Pearson correlation (r)
Definition
 provides numerical estimate of direct and strength of the linear relationship between two variables
Term
 Pearson correlation (r) must be what two things??
Definition
 Presumes relationship is linearPossible range (-1.00-+1.00): closer to 1 is a stronger relationship
Term
 Direction
Definition
 sign of the correlation (+/-) depicts the direction of the relationship between X and Y
Term
 Strength/what related to.
Definition
 size of correlation depicts the strength of relationship between X & Y AND related to effect size.
Term
 r = 0 or +/-
Definition
 tells there is no relationship between X and Y-complete overlap means will fall everytime!
Term
 "Rule of thumb" for interpreting r
Definition
 (Strength of relationship)r = 0.1 SMALLr = 0.24 MEDIUMr = 0.37 LARGE
Term
 Which is stronger? r = 0.25 or r = -0.47
Definition
 -0.47
Term
 Coefficient of determination is called what in SPSS?
Definition
 r2 linear
Term
 Effect size for correlation (Coefficient of determination)
Definition
 must square the r (r2) % of variance in variable X that is shared by Y value. r2=0.06 means 6% of X is shared by Y.
Term
 r2 or effect size
Definition
 exact percent of variance two scores share or the percent they move together
Term
 CORRELATION DOESN'T EQUAL CAUSE. why?
Definition
 just because there is a correlation between X and Y, by itself, doesn't show that X is the cause of Y
Term
 3 correlation doesnt equal cause reasons
Definition
 Co variation- are X and Y related? Is there a relationship?Time order- Does X come before Y in timeAlternative explanations- Is anything besides X causing Y?
Term
 Values needed in Correlation determination
Definition
 r: Strength of relationshpir2: percent related X to YN: sample sizeSig fig: probability
Term
 Chi square (X2)
Definition
 inferential statistics used to address hypotheses nominal variables
Term
 Chi Square Variables
Definition
 IV: Nominal (2 categories)DV: Nominal (2 categories)
Term
 Statistical significance for chi square
Definition
 compares what we observe/actually see vs what we expect by chance/average to see
Term
 Degrees of freedom for chi test
Definition
 Found on SPSS output (Rows-1)(Columns-1)
Term
 Effect size measurement for chi test
Definition
 Cramer's V
Term
 Effect size for all three tests
Definition
 Correlation: r2Chi: CramersT-test: Cohens
Term
 Cramer's V
Definition
 takes on value from 0 to 10= one variable has no impact on other1= one variable totally determines the other
Term
 Rule values for Cramer's V
Definition
 0.10= SMALL EFFECT0.24= MODERATE/MEDIUM EFFECT0.37= LARGE EFFECT
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