# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Cogs14a midterm 2
ch 5-8
64
Other
12/10/2018

Term
 Discrete variable definition
Definition
 categorical
Term
 Continuous variable definition
Definition
 numerical
Term
 Nominal
Definition
 discrete   nO order    example: gender
Term
 Ordinal
Definition
 discrete    can be ordered    ex: birth order
Term
 Interval
Definition
 0 doesn’t mean 0 it is arbitrary    intervals of same size    ex: temperature
Term
 Ratio
Definition
 ordered values    ex: number of siblings
Term
 Descriptive statistics
Definition
 central tendency - mode, median, mean    variability
Term
 Inferential statistics
Definition
 Hypothesis testing    sample testing to whole population
Term
 Mode
Definition
 most frequent
Term
 Median
Definition
 order least to greatest then the middle
Term
 Mean
Definition
 sum all n over n
Term
 Measures of variability
Definition
 range    iqr    variance and standard deviation
Term
 Range
Definition
 max - min
Term
 Iqr
Definition
 q3 -q1
Term
 Variance and SD
Definition
 measure dispersion
Term
 Correlations
Definition
 outliers strongly affect correlations    strong v weak   neg v pos
Term
 Spurious correlations
Definition
 two unrelated groups compared
Term
 T test  and z test
Definition
 compare 1 group to population
Term
 F (ANOVA) test
Definition
 compare 3 groups with each other
Term
 Chi square test
Definition
 compare nominal and ordinal data
Term
 Frequency claim v. association claim v. Causal claim
Definition
 frequency - rate or degree of a single variable  ex: 2/5 or 57%   association - supported by correlational study, 2 variables associated ex: people with higher income spend less time socializing   causal - supported by experimental study, not just related but causal  ex: music lessons enhance IQ
Term
 Four types of validity for a claim
Definition
 construct    statistical    external    internal
Term
 Construct validity
Definition
 is the operationalization good enough for the construct ?   Ex: is IQ a good test for the brain ?
Term
 Statistical validity
Definition
 extent statistical conclusions are accurate   accurate analysis avoid type errors
Term
 External validity
Definition
 can result be generalized to the population
Term
 Internal validity
Definition
 how well can study rule out confounds to make causal claims ?
Term
 Independent variable
Definition
 scientist manipulates this
Term
 Dependent variable
Definition
 what is measured
Term
 Confounding
Definition
 flaws that make alternative explanations possible
Term
 Nuisance variable
Definition
Term
 Extraneous variable
Definition
 nuisance and confounds
Term
 How correlational studies are different from true experiments
Definition
 doesn’t determine CAUSATION
Term
 How quasi experiments are different from true experiments
Definition
 use non equivalent groups
Term
 Between subject design
Definition
 Different participants get assigned different conditions   Need more participants  20 points of data = 40 participants    more noise
Term
 Within subject design
Definition
 each participant gets all conditions    less noise   Need less participants
Term
 Pretest-posttest design
Definition
 participants tested once before and after the IV is manipulated
Term
 Longitudinal design
Definition
 participants tested multiple times at different time points
Term
 Repeated measures design
Definition
 participants are measured on dependent variable multiple times   must for within subject design   coukd happen in between
Term
 Cross sectional design
Definition
 look at different age groups    between subject design
Term
 Equivalent groups
Definition
 start the same    can do with random assignment
Term
 Random assignment.
Definition
 Used to get rid of subject selection bias   to run large sample sizes   randomly assign participants to different experimental conditions    ex: flip a coin
Term
 Threats to internal validity
Definition
 these are confounds   all biases and effects
Term
 Subject selection bias
Definition
 biases and expectations a participants brings to the study themselves
Term
 Demand characteristics
Definition
 Participant will act differently upon knowing the thesis or purpose of experiment
Term
 Experimenter bias
Definition
 Effect of the  experimenter expectations on the outcome of the study
Term
 Experimenter effects
Definition
 behavioral differences in study caused by the participation if different experimenters
Term
 Instrumentation effects
Definition
 a measurement device fails to measure in the same manner across various observations
Term
 Subject attrition
Definition
 when subjects withdraw from a study resulting in loss of data    Systematic - withdraw from some conditions more than others   Nonsystematic - withdraw due to reasons not related to the experiment
Term
 History effect
Definition
 change in performance due to event that occurred during the experiment
Term
 maturation effect
Definition
 change in performance in participant due to passage of time
Term
 Testing effect
Definition
 participants improve due to repeated to testing
Term
 Regression towards the mean
Definition
 1st is extreme then the second result is more average
Term
 Order effects
Definition
 being in condition A may effect condition B
Term
 Practice effect
Definition
 do better in condition B because you learned
Term
 Fatigue effect
Definition
 do worse on condition B because you get tired
Term
 Ceiling effect
Definition
 too easy so majority people do well
Term
 Floor effect
Definition
 too hard so majority people do poorly
Term
 Counterbalancing with within subject design    COMPLETE
Definition
 ABBA - experience condition ABBA Downside is participant may predict order    Block randomization - experience blocks of conditions in random orders  Ex: If 3 conditions then 6 blocks
Term
 Counterbalancing with within subject design    INCOMPLETE
Definition
 random order w rotation - experience one order of all conditions then next experiences an order in which the first condition in the order is shifted to the back    Latin square design - each condition is presented in each ordinal position and is presented before and after each condition  *for even #s the conditions = number of order *for odd #s the conditions = 2timesN
Term
 Quasi experiment
Definition
 use of nonequivalent groups   may be able to support causal claims   no random assignment
Term
 Pre-experimental design
Definition
 measure score before and after an intervention for one setting   no control condition   no controlling for extraneous variable bc in natural setting   Ex: effect of sex ed on teen pregnancy Ex: effect of prenatal program on infant mortality
Term
 Nonequivalent groups design
Definition
 control group is COMPARABLE but not EQUIVALENT (bc did not randomly assign)   ex: residents in 2 similar locations Ex: kids in 2 similar classrooms/schools
Term
 Time Series Design
Definition
 No control group   multiple observations for single group   extended version of pre-experimental   Ex: pre-pre-pre-INTERVENTION-post-post-post
Term
 Multiple Time Series Design
Definition
 combination of time series and nonequivalent group    multiple observations of 2 nonequivalent groups
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