# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

CMD 160 Final
Dr. Singer Portion
66
Audiology
12/06/2012

Term
 How does sound occur?
Definition
 organized movement of molecules in the air
Term
 Which medium is most elastic between solids, liquids, and gases? Why?
Definition
 Solids are the most elastic; the tighter together the molecules are, the more that they move & the more movement they have, the more sound there will be
Term
 What is the source of sound waves?
Definition
 Vibrations
Term
 Define vibration
Definition
 the source of all sound waves
Term
 Define compression
Definition
 the point of maximum displacement [also called condensation]
Term
 Define rarefaction
Definition
 the reciprocal of compression; maximum displacement below the rest point
Term
 Define cycle
Definition
 occurs when the mass moves from rest to a point of maximum amplitude and rarefaction
Term
 Define frequency
Definition
 physical property; the number of completed cycles that occur in one second
Term
 Explain the difference between frequency and pitch
Definition
 Frequency; physical property & requires precision device for measurement Pitch; perception
Term
 What is damping?
Definition
 Decreasing amplitude
Term
 A pure tone or sine wave contains how many frequencies?
Definition
 ONE frequency
Term
 Define resonant or natural frequency
Definition
 the frequency that vibrates most easily [different for everyone, but everyone has]
Term
 How do pure tones and complex tones differ?
Definition
 Pure tones; only one frequency Complex tones; made up of many frequencies
Term
 Define harmonic
Definition
 integral multiple of the fundamental; aka multiples ex) if fundamental is 500 Hz then: 1000, 1500, 2000, etc.
Term
 Define fundamental
Definition
 base or lowest tone; lowest frequency sound in a group
Term
 Define octave
Definition
 a doubling of frequency; aka doubling ex) if fundamental is 500 Hz then: 1000, 2000, 4000, 8000, etc.
Term
 Define the difference between loudness and intensity
Definition
 Loudness; perception Intensity; physical property
Term
 Define pressure
Definition
 force distributed over a surface area
Term
 How do intensity and pressure relate to one another?
Definition
 they are proportionate to one another and therefore can be used interchangeably; intensity equals pressure squared I = P^2
Term
 How is a reference level used in the calculation of pressure or intensity?
Definition
 compare some unknown quantity of sound to the reference levels and see how many times greater one is than the other
Term
 "In phase" waves begin at what number of degrees?
Definition
 0 degrees or 360 degrees
Term
 What is the range of human hearing in young children?
Definition
 16-20 to 16000-20000 Hz
Term
 What frequencies are important for understanding hearing speech?
Definition
 hearing is frequency dependent; certain frequencies take less energy than others; understanding speech range from 300-400 to 3000-4000 Hz
Term
 What intensities are important for understanding speech?
Definition
 conversational speech occurs at 65-70 dBSPLwhisper occurs at 45-48 dBSPL
Term
 What specific questions are we attempting to answer when determining if there is hearing loss?
Definition
 How severe it is?Where in the auditory system does the problem come from?
Term
 How is hearing threshold defined?
Definition
 the lowest (minimum) level a person can hear 50% of the time
Term
 Describe the basic procedure for completing the pure-tone audiogram
Definition
 measuring air conduction and bone conduction hearing; top line is the average hearing line, write symbols where the differing margin is inRAC [right air conduction] OLAC [left air conduction] XRBC [right bone conduction] >LBC [left bone conduction] <
Term
 Describe the relationship between air conduction and bone conduction in normals, conductives, sensorineurals and mixed losses
Definition
 normal hearing: normal air and bone conductionconductive loss: air conduction is abnormal, bone conduction is normalsensorineural loss: both air and bone conduction are abnormal and equally somixed loss: air and bone conduction are abnormal but air is worse
Term
 What is the purpose of the SRT?
Definition
 to determine the threshold for speech
Term
 What is the purpose of the word recognition test?
Definition
 to measure our ability to understand monosyllables when presented at a comfortable level
Term
 Differentiate validity and reliability
Definition
 validity: test measures what test is supposed to testreliability: replicable & repeatable outcomes
Term
 How do we assure reliability in audiologic assessment
Definition
 by calibrating the equipment
Term
 What are the three subcomponents of immittance testing?
Definition
 tympanometry, static admittance, and acoustic reflexes
Term
 What does tympanometry measure?
Definition
 measure of eardrum mobility under a variety of pressure conditions (positive and negative)positive: adding/expandingnegative: removing/vacuum
Term
 What does static admittance tell us?
Definition
 if the eardrum allows energy to flow through the middle ear normally
Term
 What does measurement of the acoustic reflex tell us?
Definition
 measure of the intensity needed to evoke a contraction of the middle ear muscles
Term
 What diagnostic data can be determined from the procedures of measuring the acoustic reflex and static admittance?
Definition
 tympanometry: under what pressure conditions the eardrum moves most easilystatic admittance: the integrity of the eardrum and health of the middle earacoustic reflex: least amount of energy needed to get contraction of middle ear muscles
Term
 How are evoked potentials measured?
Definition
 by placing electrodes on the scalp while presenting sounds through earphones; data is recorded on a computer
Term
 What might abnormal responses on evoked potential tests indicate?
Definition
 tumors, abnormal developments, other diseases or learning problems
Term
 The OAE (otoacoustic emissions) can be elicited in two ways. Name them.
Definition
 - spontaneous: echoes occur naturally- evoked: echoes occur after stimulus
Term
 What is the clinical application for the OAE?
Definition
 for newborn infant screening programs, difficult individuals to test, such as developmentally delayed individuals
Term
 Define and differentiate rehabilitative and habilitative audiology.
Definition
 rehabilitative: redeveloping/restoring existing functionshabilitative: development of function that has YET to materialize
Term
 What is the rationale for this topic? What is it about hearing loss that makes this function important?
Definition
 Cochlear hearing loss cannot be treated medically, and the hearing loss will be chronic; audiologist hope to amplify their hearing
Term
 Which individuals may help manage hearing loss aside from the audiologist?
Definition
 ENT doctor, psychologist, teacher, parent, teacher of the deaf, and vocational counselor
Term
 What are the major components of a hearing aid? What does each do?
Definition
 microphone: picks up soundamplifier: changes sound to increased electrical signalreceiver: changes energy from electrical to acoustic domain so the ear can use the information
Term
 What is the name of the formula used to manipulate sound through the hearing aid?
Definition
 algorithm
Term
 What are the three main electroacoustic parameters of a hearing aid?
Definition
 gain, frequency response curve, and output limiting
Term
 What are implantable hearing devices?
Definition
 Bone Anchored Hearing Aids (BAHA), Middle Ear Implants (MEI), Cochlear Implants, and Auditory Brainstem Implants (ABI)
Term
 What is the purpose of assistive listening devices?
Definition
 to provide hearing benefit where wearable hearing aids are not sufficient ex) in noisy places/group situations/alerting devices1) situational 2) alerting
Term
 Indicate examples of assistive listening devices
Definition
Term
Definition
 all visual cues that aid in understanding a message; ex) lip reading, facial expression, body language, and gestures
Term
 What are the limitations of speech reading?
Definition
 many sounds can not be visualized
Term
 Define auditory training
Definition
 technique intended to maximize the benefit from auditory information
Term
 What are the major goals or steps related to auditory training?
Definition
 1st) development of sound awareness2nd) gross discrimination and discrimination of finer soundsaka: from the simple & gross to the more subtle & difficult
Term
 Define the "referential" nature of sound.
Definition
 ability to recognize the connection between sound from a specific sourceex) Mother's voice, door slamming, etc.
Term
 Describe the areas of counsel in audiologic rehabilitation used with children
Definition
 - family concerns- amplification- hearing assessment- educational opportunities - direction related to psychologic- medical management- environmental management (optimize performance/communication)
Term
 Describe the areas of counsel in audiologic rehabilitation used with adults
Definition
 - advice regarding amplification - hearing assessment- medical management- use of speech reading- environmental manipulation (optimize communication/performance)- familial concerns- direction related to psychologic & vocational
Term
 Describe the basic procedure for completing the pure-tone audiogram
Definition
 we measure hearing by both air conduction and bone conduction; record on graphic display of the dataair- present stimuli through ear phones (octave frequencies 250-8000Hz) and patient click when they hear a soundbone- place vibrating/oscillating device behind the ear on the mastoid (octave frequencies 500-4000Hz)
Term
 What do otoacoustic emissions or OAE do?
Definition
 measure outer ear hair cell function
Term
 Define gain.
Definition
 the difference between output and input (output-input); the amount of amplification a person receives calculated in dBSPL
Term
 Define frequency response curve.
Definition
 graphic display of gain by frequency
Term
 Define output limiting.
Definition
 maximum acoustic energy that the hearing aid wearer will receive regardless of the input; calculated in dBSPL
Term
 What are Bone Anchored Hearing Aids (BAHA)?
Definition
 a popular implantable device; surgically implanted into skull and provide hearing through bone conduction, intended for people with conductive hearing loss
Term
 What are Middle Ear Implants (MEI)?
Definition
 uncommon implantable device; experimental and intended for individuals with sensorineural loss; advantages are that wax won't enter the aid, feedback will be avoided, and there won't be discomfort from the aid
Term
 What are Cochlear Implants?
Definition
 most popularly used implants; devices don't amplify, but rather stimulate the auditory nerve; meant to be for those who can't be benefitted by hearing aids; effective with young children, it can facilitate development of speech and language
Term
 What are Auditory Brainstem Implants (ABI)?
Definition
 rare implantable device; used when person has no 8th nerve function, device implanted in the brainstem
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