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CLST 129 Slides for Test 1
This is for Queen's archaeology course CLST 129. Slides for test 1. The first point on the answers indicates the name of the slide and the rest are information about the slide. Sorry for typos!
Undergraduate 1

Additional Archaeology Flashcards




  • pompeii, general view, Vesuvius in background.
  • new town and old town (ancient city in foreground)
  • area continually inhabited (vegetation grows even after eruption).
  • shape of volcano changed after eruption (2 peaks)
  • located in the Bay of Naples (to left)
  • big eruption destroying ancient city in August 79 AD
  • ancient city still needs to excavated (pollution halted excavation).
  • Vesuvius still active
  • large families in Greece, so Pompeii was colonized (not a Greek settlement, but heavily influenced).
  • Pompeii directly to southeast so larger range of damage (covered in ash, not just lava).












  • eruption of mid 17th century - note lava flow over Pompeii area
  • multiple eruptions through 17th century
  • earthquakes and tremors all in area (signal of eruption).
  • majority (read: all) photos depict eruption
  • this picture shows destruction done by lava
  • good comparison = Mount St. Helen's
  • mud, multiple eruptions, victims died from gas/ ash, many deadly gases (CO, CO2, Sulfur, etc...)
  • 62 AD: large earthquake, gas buildup, much damage...
  • 63 AD: earthquakes/ tremors
  • Aug 79 AD: more tremors, springs dry up
  • Aug 24 79 AD: main Vesuvius eruption, pompeii destroyed
  • depth of ash over Pompeii
  • difference between Herculaneum and Pompeii
  • ash preserved buildings/ bodies
  • roofs of buildings collapsed.
  • Pompeii very hard to discover because of depth
  • Pompeiians couldn't find loved ones because of coverage
  • ash made escape during eruption impossible.
  • residents died due to asphyxiation (not burns/ lava)
  • Theatrical Area - large theatre, odeum, gladiator barracks, triangle forum with Doric temple.
  • larger theatre built in Greek style, with Roman touch ups (seats 5000, pit/ orchestra)
  • more popular shows in larger theatre
  • designed to optimize acoustics for performances.
  • Doric temple = Greek style as well (because the steps surronded the whole building, whereas Roman temples usually had one set of stairs).
  • gladiators found chained in barracks (women also found in barracks for unknown reason).
  • odeum used for poetry recitals and political speeches, etc.
  • triangular forum predated the Roman forum
  • trees in triangular forum weren't necessarily there
  • theatres had roof and retractable awning (velarium)
  • gladiator barracks
  • gladiators = prisoners of war/ slaves (majority)
  • different types of gladiators (disciplines)
  • barracks used for training, not showcasing fights.
  • gladiators did not escape eruption
  • fights not always to the death, continual fighting for more profit and to earn fighter's freedom
  • paelestrae surronds the barracks.
  • Large Theatre
  • sits 5000 people (pit/ orchestra for extra seating)
  • more popular shows on display here
  • originally built by Greeks with Roman touch ups
  • orchestra (area in front of the seating) used for the chorus
  • all actors were men
  • shows took place during the day because they had no lighting systems
  • beggars and panhandlers surronded the district much like in modern times
  • better acoustics from the shape of the theatre
  • temple of Isis excavation (1765)
  • shows that pillars were coloured, not actually pristine white
  • Isis was Egyptian god (of motherhood/ fertility) adopted by Pompeiians
  • mystery cult that held 2 ceremonies daily
  • 2 eggs found after excavation from daily ceremonies
  • picture shows the massive amounts of ash at Pompeii
  • 5 priests escaped during eruption (found running or escaping a house, etc).
  • poor archeological techniques at the time (simply just a treasure hunt so excavation was not very careful).
  • artifacts distributed globally to Kings (very hard to trace artifacts back to this location).
  • excavation ocurred during Reinassence because there was a classical revival at the time
  • Emperor Titus was in charge after he wanted a salvage mission but not much could be done
  • Excavating Herculaneum, late 17th century (use of convicts and gunpowder)
  • harder than Pompeii to excavate because of massive amount of thick ash and lava
  • also modern town built over top of ancient town, making it even harder to excavate.
  • large workforce needed because 5-20m of ash covered ancient city
  • discovered because Emanuele Maurizo of Elboeuf (Prince of Lorraine) wanted a villa
  • digging for a well revealed artifacts and so he decided to hunt for treasure.
  • artifacts shipped to Vienna for palaces
  • G. Fiorelli directed excavations at Pompeii from 1860
  • lived from 1823 - 1896
  • believed site was to be treated like a museum (first real archaeologist at Pompeii).
  • had 3 principles: 1) keep records, 2) dig systematically, 3) keep proper spoil heaps
  • criticized by Schliemann for going too slow
  • gave great insight into how Pompeii lived
  • invented a technique that used plaster to uncover bodies (poured into buildings in order to preserve the site)
  • plaster cast of Pompeiian victim
  • horrific expressions/ positions of people
  • could tell the clothes on people as well as the way they lived (diet, height, weight, etc) from excellent preservation
  • after body decomposed, empty space left so plaster filled in the gap in order to obtain a mould
  • bodies are from the 79 AD eruption
  • boat sheds, Herculaneum - 100s of bodies
  • people tried to find shelter/ escape eruption and went into boat shelter
  • tried to escape by sea but the wind was blowing in the wrong direction, so instead tried to wait out the eruption (bad idea)
  • can't use plaster method because of the number of bodies (hundreds of bones preserved in the rock).
  • people died from gases (water vapor, carbon dioxide/ monoxide, sulfur, chlorine, etc...)
  • entire ancient boat preserved (very good archaeological find because this is extremely rare!)
  • bodies covered by lava as well as ash and mud
  • Herculaneum bodies (different from Pompeiian bodies because of lava)
  • ash did not preserve bodies so no moulds could be made to preserve their form
  • had first shock of volcano so had the opportunity to hide or take shelter
  • Pompeii main forum (Roman) various buildings and POI in forum area
  • Basilica: public building, used for business and trials (law court), podium for political speeches, use of concrete reduced number of columns, bricks covered in marble to make columns
  • Macellum: meat and fish market, stalls and vendors, Tholos was fountain in middle, shops faced away from sun, temple dedicated to emperor
  • Capitolium: holds 3 main gods of Roman empire (jupiter, juno, minerva), ceremonies in front of the temple of forum
  • Temple of Apollo: god of Sun (daylight), temple built before the forum
  • Pompeii street - fountain, stepping stones...
  • grooves for carriages, bumps served as speed bumps
  • fountains for water
  • streets not clean, stepping stones for crossing street
  • carriages were only used by elites
  • no particular direction for roads
  • streets had no names ("where the streets had no names "♫)
  • small in comparison to modern day streets
  • Thermopolium and bakeries along the streets for trade
  • Herculaneum gate, street of tombs beyond
  • medieval style gate (double gate)
  • used for protection against Romans and locals (samnites)
  • 7 - 8 entrances around entire settlement
  • Pompeiian tombs located on outside (mourners hired for funerals, death big deal in society)
  • large tombs (monuments), family tombs were large structures
  • stabian baths, palaestra
  • built in 300 BCE (Samnite period)
  • used as a social place and also as a fitness and bathing facility
  • 2 of each rooms (to sort out gender)
  • apodyterium: change room (rich had servants to carry their belongings)
  • hypocaust used to regulate heat of rooms through the floor (slaves used)
  • tepidarium = warm room, shelves for belongings
  • calidarium = hot room used after tepidarium
  • frigidarium = cold room
  • palestrae exercise area (big open field), exercised in nude
  • baths operated on 2 different times to accommodate different genders
  • Pompeiian atrium house
  • vestibule = entrance way
  • atrium = main lobby
  • cubicula = rooms, servants bedrooms
  • implovium = gather rainwater (pipes move water through house)
  • complovium = hole in the roof
  • ala = "wing"
  • tablinium = client - patron meeting room
  • triclinium = dining rooms/ dinner parties
  • androne = "man's room"
  • hortus = enclosed garden
  • peristyle = columned porch/ open colonnade
  • exerda = mostly storage, can be used as back entrance
  • House of Caecilius lararium - evidence of earthquake
  • tilt of buildings shows an earthquake
  • 62 AD earthquake - result of gas buildup underground
  • small shrine (lararium was used to house larees/ deities or household gods who protected the house)
  • Frank Calvert (1828 - 1908)
  • owned small portion of Hisarlik
  • much better methods than Schliemann
  • brother (Fred) owned property @ Bunarbaschi
  • Frank excavated various sites (Bunarbaschi)
  • found remains at Hisarlik (needed to buy land)
  • appealed to British Museum to help pay for dig (they refused)
  • Schliemann bought land after Calvert convinced him that Hisarlik was the site of Troy (he financed the whole excavation)
  • Ankershagen, Germany
  • Schliemann claimed to be born here (not true)
  • lied about even the smallest of things
  • actually born in Beubuckow
  • young Schliemann (8 yrs old) decided to dig up Troy
  • more lies, continuing to prove that Schliemann could not be trusted even about the smallest things
  • never held a steady job
  • Heinrich Schliemann 
  • lied about even the smallest of things
  • actually born in Beubuckow
  • young Schliemann (8 yrs old) decided to dig up Troy
  • more lies, continuing to prove that Schliemann could not be trusted even about the smallest things
  • never held a steady job
  • made fortune trading commodities (everything he touched was sucessful)
  • 1850 brother died in California (gold rush) Schliemann went to settle affairs, and got involved in gold trade
  • cheated Partner out of gold $$ (more dishonesty)
  • lied about US citizenship (to cover up fraud)
  • 1852 goes back to St. Petersburg (health reasons)
  • propsed to 2 women by letter and got married and started family after one accepted
  • made fortune in Crimean war (selling saltpeter)
  • 1858 - 1866 travelled globe
  • 1866 enrolled at Sorbonne, got PhD after writing a book on travels
  • divorce in 1869 (marriage was not happy)
  • divorce is first major evidence of fraud
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