Shared Flashcard Set


CLEP Practice Test #4
Undergraduate 2

Additional Psychology Flashcards





Which thinker suggested that children are born a tabula rasa?


Jean-Jacques Rousseau

John Locke

Alfred Binet

Sigmund Freud

Erik Erikson


John Locke


He believed that children were born a tabula rasa (or blank slate) upon which adults could write and improint their knowledge. This view runs contrary to theories that children are born with any specific knowledge or behavioral inclinations.


All of the following statements describe stage theories, EXCEPT:


- development occurs in distinct periods

- development in early periods influences development in laterperiods

- development is discrete and predictable

- limited only to the early childhood years

- subsequent development is predicated by prior periods


Limited only to the early childhood years.


Stage theories, such as those espoused by Piaget and Erikson, DO assume that development occurs in an orderly, predictable fashion, with distinct periods of development influencing later development. However, developmental stages occur throughout the lifespan.


According to Freud, which aspect of our personality is present at birth?


- id

- ego

- superego

- id and ego

- id, ego, and superego




The id, home to our most primitive urges, is present at birth.


The superego can be described as:


- representing the moral standards and values of parents

- innate and transmitted to the child genetically

- developing to help the child find rational ways of satisfying urges

- representing self-awareness on the part of the child.

- none of the above


Representing the moral standards and values of parents.


Freud's notion of the superego, the third aspect of our personality to develop, involved an overriding moral guidepost, transmitted too the child in great part through adult authority figures.

According to Freud's theory of psychosexual stages, during thefirst year of life the child is in the _____ stage of development.



During the first year of life, Freud felt the child was passing through the oral stage of psychosexual developement; hence, a baby's tendency to explore objects by mouthing them.


What is the first stage of psychosocial development according to Erik Erikson?


- Industry vs inferiority

- Autonomy vs. shame and doubt

- Initiative vs. guilt

- Trust vs. mistrust

- Intimacy vs. isolation


Trust vs. mistrust


According to Erik Erickson, the first stage of psychosocial development involves the dichotomy between trust and mistrust, when an infant learns to feel secure with its caregivers.


Kareem laughs whenever his neck is touched. NOw before touching his neck, his mommy says, "gotcha." Pretty soon, as soon as she says 'gotcha," Kareem starts to laugh. This is an example of:


- habituation learning

- classical conditioning

- sensitization learning

- operant conditioning

- positive reinforcement



Classical conditioning


In classical conditioning, an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) which provokes a certain response is paired with an additional stimulus; the pairing occurs so often that this additional stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS), capable of proboking the exact same response. In this case, the touch to Kareem's neck is the UCS, whereas the word "Gotcha" becomes the CS.


In behaviorism, if a behavior increases we assume:


- that the person has free will and wanted to do it again.

- that the behavior has been reinforced in some way.

- that the behavior has been punished in some way.

- that this may have been a fluke.

- none of these.


that the behavior has been reinforced in some way.


Reinforcement is all-important to the mind of a behaviorist, who would ascertain that any changes in behavior, whether increases or decreases, are due to some form of reinforcement.


By definition, a hypothesis....


- cannot be proved

- is a theory

- is a best guess

- is an experiment

- is a testable statement


is a testable statement


According to the scientific method, a hypothesis is a testable statement that may lead to experimentation and then to the creation of a theory.


Extinction of behavior occurs ....


- from repeated performance of operant behavior without reinforcement

- when classically conditioned stimuli are removed

- with the passage of time even if reinforcement continues

- never - once something is learned it cannot be 'unlearned'.

- if conditioning occurs intermittently


from repeated performance of operant behavior


Extinction of a behavior occurs along with repeated, consistent lack of reinforcement.


Dr Alfonzo has intensely studied a pair of conjoined twins for two years. This represents ....


- an experiment

- a correlational design

- a cross-lagged method

- a case study

- a cross-sectional study

Dr. Alfonzo is intensely studying the behavior of this individual pair of twins; hence, this is an individual case study which may later lead to more involved experimental or correlational designs.

Which of the following represents the "strongest" correlation"?


- +0.65

- +0.70

- -0.80

- -0.45

- +0.79




The closer the correlation coefficient is to either + or -1.00, the stronger the correlation.


A researcher has noted that the more hours students spend partying, the lower their exam scores. This represents .....


- a fact of life for college students

- a negative correlation

- a positive correlation

- a case study

- a hypothesis


a negative correlation


There is a negative relationship (or negative correlation) between the two variables - when one variable (the partying) increases, the other (the test scores) decreases.


Dr Manquero has the hypothesis that ingesting chocolate prior to an exam will improve exam performance. She gives half of her participants; chocolate and the other half gum, and then gives them an exam. In this experiment, what is the best way to divide the participants into groups?


- Make sure that each group wants to eat the chocolate or chew the gum

- How you form the groups doesn't matter

- Have all males in one group and all females in the other

- Use random assignment

- Ask the students to make the decision


Use random assignment


To obtain results as free of interfering variables as possible, random assignment would be necessary.


Research has shown that maternal smoking may:


- cause high birth weight in the infant

- be associated with poor academic performance by the child later on

- lead to longer gestation periods before the infant is born

- cause a greater likelihood that the child will be a smoker later in life.

- cause the child to be an overwight adult.


be associated with poor academic performance by the child later on


Research has shown that maternal smoking may lead to several complications, including premature birth, low birth weight, and poor academic performance later in life (i.e., learning disabilities, attention deficits).


Given the cephalocaudal pattern of development, which of the following should happen first?


- development of the sensory systems

- growth of the hands and feet

- development of the brain and spinal cord

- development of the kidneys and liver

- development of the spinal cord, but not the brain

Development occurs cephalocaudally, from top to bottom. Therefore, brain development occurs early on, leading to large fetal head size relative to other areas of the body. the spinal cord, also part of the central nervous system, by necessity develops early on, as well.

In terms of prenatal development, alcohol would be an example of a....


- fetal stimulant

- hallucinogen

- teratogen

- chemical that cannot cross through the placenta

- narcotic





Teratogens (such as alcohol, cocaine, or heroin) are substances that can harm the fetus by crossing through the placenta and entering the fetal bloodstream.


Which developing system is vulnerable for the greatest period of time after conception?


- Peripheral organs

- Central nervous system

- Reproductive system

- Respiratory system

- Digestive system


Central nervous system


The central nervous system, along with the heart, is most vulnerable to teratogens during the weeks directly following conception. At this point, other systems have not yet developed as fully, and so are less vulnerable.


In comparison to other infants, infant "X" is more aroused by stressors and does not calm down as rapidly as other infants. what might we assume about infant "X"?


- This infant is more likely to be male than female.

- This infant is likely to have been exposed to cocaine in utero.

- This infant is more likely to be female than male.

- This infant is very likely to have been premature.

- This infant is simply "fussy" by nature.


This infant is likely to have been exposed to cocaine in utero.


Recent studies have shown that infants exposed to cocaine in utero are more overly arounsed than other infants, and more difficult to soothe. This is sometimes compounded by other factors, such as prematurity, environmental deprivation, weak parenting skills, or lack of secure attachment.


When the XY genetic code begins to assert itself....


- sex organs begin to differentiate

- chromosomal abnormalities occur

- estrogen begins to be produced

- brain development begins to occur more rapidly

- androgens are secreted


Sex organs begin to differentiate


Around the seventh week of fetal development, once the XY genetic code begins to assert itself, the testes begin to differentiate if there is a Y (male) chromosome. If there is no Y chromosome, the ovaries begin to differentiate about a week later.


Which of the following represents proximodistal development?


- fine motor development occurring before gross motor development

- the fact that we tend to develop from the head down

- the fact that, at birth, the head is oversized in comparison to the body

- the fact that growth spreads outward from the spine

- none of these is correct


the fact that growth spreads outward from the spine


Proximodistal development indicates a progression in development from the more central ("proximo," or "nearer") locations of the body outward toward the more peripheral ("distal" or "farther") regions.


Of the 46 chromosomes in a normal human cell, how many are contributed by the mother?


- All

- It depends on the gender of the child

- 22

- 23

- None




Providing no chromosomal aberration has occurred, both mother and father provide an infant with 23 chromosomes.


What factor determines the sex of a child?


- The sex chromosome received from the father

- At what time in the ovulation cycle conception occurs

- The age of the mother

- Presence or absence of teratogens at the time of conception

- Chance


The sex chromosome received from the father


The presence of either an X or a Y chromosome from the father determines the child's gender; the mother has no Y chromosome.


How can we assess infant visual preferences?


- It is not possible to assess visual preferences in infants

- by measuring how long infants look at particular objects

- by assessing the degree of peripheral vision which approximates visual preference

- by first ascertaining whether an infant can track horizontally or vertically

- none of these is accurate about infant visual preference


by measuring how long infants look at particular objects


An infant will regard a preferred object for a longer time than it would an object of lesser interest.


The habituation method is demonstrated when ...


- infants show new interest in something they have not seen before.

- infants become accustomed to their primary caregivers.

- infants show that they can distinguish parental voices by 4 weeks of age.

- infants show visual preferences by attending to objects they like longer.

- infants show recognition by no longer responding to something they have seen before.


infants show recognition by no longer responding to something they have seen before.


When infants habituate to an object, they display a decrease in interest toward that object. This demonstrates that the infants have seen the object enough times that it is no longer novel.


When infants "look" at something ....


- they actually bounce from feature to feature rather than staring.

- they focus in on one feature and ignore all other features.

- They are prewired to pay attention to subtle features.

- they do not like anything out of the ordinary or different.

- they only seem like they are looking; they are in actuality having difficulty perceiving.


they actually bounce from feature to feature rather than staring


Recent research has indicated that infants take in many interesting aspects of what they perceive at a given moment. For instance, they may focus on several features of a human face.


Which of the following is a simple reflex?


- reaching for an object

- Purposefully searching for an object

- Looking to see if mother is near

- Turning toward the source of a noise

- The smile that occurs at the age of seven weeks


Turning toward the source of a noise


Simple reflexes, which later become integrated into an infant's repertoire of mature, voluntary responses, are involuntary actions on the part of the infant; one example is the "startle" reflex which occurs automatically when an infant hears a sudden noise and turns or "starts".


Michelle is crawling and she stops before crawling off an edge. This suggests ....


- that infants are prewired to avoid danger

- that crawling infants also perceive depth

- that infants are afraid of changes in their environment.

- that differences in thresholds are surprising to infants

- that Michelle's parents have already taught her to protect herself from falls.


that crawling infants also perceive depth


The classic "visual cliff" experiment demonstrated that most infants who had learned to crawl between approximately six to eight months of age could innately perceive depth; they avoided the false precipice the experimenters had presented before them, even though their mothers had been coached by the experiments to beckon to the infants from the other side of the "cliff".


If an infant perceives a door as the same shape whether it is open or ajar, this represents ....


- size constancy

- intellectual asymmetry

- perceptual constancy

- retinal parity

- object permanence


Perceptual constancy


Perceptual constancy involves the ability to perceive an object as the same regardless of difference in distance or position.


D.C. has learned that his ball is called a "toy". When he sees a round light bulb he calls it a "toy". This is an example of ....


- accomodation

- differentiation

- assimilation

- conceptualization

- formal operations




Assimilation is Piaget's notion of incorporating a novel idea or object into an existing schema or conception. In this case, the newly encountered round "light bulb" is incororated into the existing general schema of round "toys".


Which of the following is NOT a stage of cognitive development according to Piaget?


- Preoperational

- Sesorimotor 

- Concrete operations

- Formal operations

- Logical operations


Logical operations


According to Piaget, our mental operational ability from infancy through adulthood passes through the following stages:  sensotimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, and formal operations.


If an infant reaches for a toy hidden under a cloth, what does this suggest?


- What it means depends on the age of the child

- That the child has a mental representation of the object in mind

- It is still random activity at this age

- It depends on the gender of the child

- The infant is acting on impulse


The child has a mental representation of the object in mind


The infant realizes that the toy still exists hidden under a cloth because it is able to picture the toy as a mental representation. This conceptual ability, which usually develops around the age of six motnhs, is referred to as object permanence.


What is the basis for most human learning?


- genetics

- individual differences

- trial and error

- imitation

- IQ




Much of learning hinges on the ability to imitate. In infancy, simple actions on objects (i.e. banging, clapping) and simple sound play often occur through imitation, which is then, in turn, reinforced by parents' joyful praise.


Jana can tell the difference between an object she has seen before from a new one. This is referred to as:


- habituation

- sensory memory

- recognition memory

- classical conditioning

- episodic memory


recognition memory


Recognition memory involves the ability to discriminate previously viewed objects from novel objects.


The term mental operations can best be described as:


- unusual prior to age 10

- flexible and reversible

- occurring as early as age 18 months

- involving only one side of the brain

- predictable and distinct


flexible and reversible


According to Piaget, mental operations have a flexible and reversible quality. For example, conservation of volume involves the ability to comprehend that the amount of water in a jar will remain the same even if poured into a jar of a narrower shape. When asked to ponder this problem, a child in the concrete operational stage of development would have to use flexibility to picture the water in two different jars, and would have to incorporate reversibility to imagine the water poured from one jar to the next, then back to its original state.


"Why does it get dark?" "So I can go to sleep." A child at this cognitive stage would be described as ....


- one who is egocentric

- probably younger than 2 years

- demonstrating inductive reasoning

- engaging in generalist thinking

- incorporating preconventional morality


one who is egocentric


The child is displaying egocentrism, able to explain events in the immediate environment only in terms of their relationship to him/herself. To the egocentric child, the skies darken outside only to allow the child to get a good night's rest.


Which of the following is a recall task?


- multiple-choice test

- asking a child to recite state capitals

- completing a survey

- matching test

- Rorschach test


asking a child to recite state capitals


A recall task would involve memory for specific, discrete information such as the names of state capitals.


Pretend play among children ....


- has little useful function

- is entirely random

- is unusual until about age 5

- is more common among girls than boys

- follows many rules


follows many rules


The rich world of pretend play follows a variety of intricate rules that allow children to invent scenarios, assume roles, and create worlds of their own. Because so much language and thought is involved, pretend play serves an extremely useful function, becoming a springboard for increasingly sophisticated cognitive development.


Which of the following represents a child's zone of proximal development?


- The gap between what the child can do now and what the child can do with help

- The degree of difference between the child's current ability and guture potential

- What younger children can do in comparison to what older children can do

- What a young child can do in comparison to his age or peers

- The child's intellectual ability as measured on standardized tests


The gap between what the child can do now and what the child can do with help


According to Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky, the child's zone of proximal development represents the gap between the child's independent ability to perform tasks and the child's ability to perform tasks with adult assistance.


What seems to enhance the effectiveness of preschool programs for ecomonically disadvantaged children?


- If they are started no later than age one

- If they focus on teaching the value of education

- If they also include parental involvement

- Adherence to a particular curriculum

- None of the above


If they also include parental involvement


Research has demonstrated that parental/familial involvement in a child's preschool program/curriculum leads to increased opportunities for cognitive development


In terms of language ....


- children can only understand words they can say

- its development is predetermined and independent of experience

- children often learn to sign before they learn to speak

- children can understand many more words than they can speak

- development is linked very closely to the development of visual memory


children can understand many more words than they can speak


Receptive language, which refers to comprehension, often develops more quickly than expressive language, which refers to the conveyance of ideas through language.


What is the earliest communicative sound a child makes?


- crying

- Ma

- Pa

- Cooing

- Babbling




The infant's cry, initially reflexive, becomes the first true communicative sound once the infant realizes that the cry can produce a result (i.e., food, comfort, attention).


Intonation involves ....


- rising and falling speech patterns

- the repetition of consonants and vowels

- repeating what has been heard

- babbling sounds from all possible languages

- musical pitch


rising and falling speech patterns


Intonations make up the cadence and rhythm of language, with rising and falling speech patterns. An infant's jargon, a sort of variegated babbling which often precedes the use of words, incorporates these intonations and allows the jargon to sound as if the infant really is speaking to the caregiver.


Rona has learned to call a toy truck "try". Now, whenever she sees any toy with wheels, she calls it "tru". This is an example of ....


- egocentrism

- referential language style

- expressive language style

- overextension

- pragmatics




Rona is overextending by incorporating a variety of toys with wheels (i.e., jeeps, cars, trains) into one semantic category, 'tru".


A child says "doggy go." This is an example of ....


- morpheme

- holophrase

- telegraphic speech

- mean length of utterance

- prosody


telegraphic speech


Early phrases used by toddlers omit grammatical features such as articles, plurals, and possessives. As a result, their speech winds up sounding much like the language used in telegraphs.


What is a morpheme?


- A single word meant to represent many objects

- The smallest unit of meaning in a sentence

- The total length of an infant's utterance

- A consonant-vowel combination

- A grammatical feature such as an article


the smallest unit of meaning in a sentence


It could be a word, or it could be part of a word such as a plural or a possessive, as long as it conveys meaning.


Which of the following words is a child likely to understand first?


- when

- why

- who

- how

- when and why at the same time




The most concrete of these question words, who, would be easiest for a child to understand. The other choices necessitate answers that are more abstract in nature.


Which of Gardner's "intelligences" is consistent with traditional intelligence tests?


- Mathematical reasoning

- Bodily-kinesthetic

- Interpersonal

- Personal knowledge

- Intrapersonal


Mathematical reasoning


Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligence describes forms of knowledge that people may possess in varying degrees, as individual strengths. Mathematical reasoning, as opposed to other strengths such as interpersonal or bodily-kinesthetic, is the form of intelligence that can be measured by traditional intelligence tests.


Carl has survived on the street because he can adapt to the demands of street life. Carl is probably ....


- high in analytical intelligence

- high in creative intelligence

- high in practical intelligence

- high in associateive intelligence

- high in kinesthetic intelligence


high in practical intelligence


According to Robert Sternberg, Carl's practical intelligence (or "street smarts") would allow him to respond to different sorts of everyday situations in canhy, insightful ways.


What is the average correlation in IQ scores for monoozygotic twins reared together?


- +0.67

- -0.43

- 0

- +1.32

- +0.85




Supporting both the notion of a hereditary and an environmental basis for intelligence, research shows a strong positive correlation between IQ scores for monozygotic (identical) twins reared together.


How do IQ scores at age 9 correlate with IQ scores at age 18?


- They are completely unrelated.

- They are modestly negatively correlated.

- They are highly positively correlated.

- It depends on gender.

- The specific test dictates the correlation.


They are highly positively correlated.


IQ scores have been found to be correlated positively at these two ages; this would support the predictive ability of IQ tests taken at the earlier age measured.


Which of the following names is associated with research on attachment?


- Piaget

- Horney

- Bruner

- Ainsworth

- Gardner




Mary Ainsworth conducted classic research on the "strange situation," which examines the infant's reaction to a caregiver leaving the room as well as the relative security of the infant's attachment to the caregiver.


An infant fusses mildly when the mother leaves and seeks comfort from her upon her return. This infant shows ....


- ambivalent attachment

- insecure attachment

- avoidant attachment

- secure attachment

- an attachment disorder


secure attachment


The infant's ability to fuss only mildly upon the mother's leaving and seek comfort upon her return reveals a secure attachment, unmarred by any sense of ambivalence, avoidance, or resentment.


A baby smiles in response to the sound of the human voice or the sight of the human face. This is called ....


- social smiling

- reflexive smiling

- genetic smiling

- responsive smiling

- a social dyad


Social smiling


Around 7 weeks of age, the baby becomes able to demonstrate a true or "social" smile, as opposed to the mere reflex that appears earlier in the baby's life.


Aggression in preschoolers is ....


- virtually non-existent

- usually person-oriented

- usually possession-oriented

- usually aimed at getting attention

- indicative of a personality disorder


Usually possession-oriented


Scuffles over toys and other objects usually prompt aggression among preschoolers.


Can prosocial behaviors be taught to young children (age 3 or older)?


- Yes, if they are given responsibilities that model helping

- No, they are not cognitively prepared for this kind of thinking at this young age

- Girls usually can be, boys usually cannot be

- No, because prosocial behaviors are triggered through maturational processes, not experience

- The behaviors can be taught, but need to be re-learned constantly.


Yes, if they are given responsibilities that model helping.


Prosicial behavior, which does not necessarily lead to a reward as a consequence, can be taught through positive reinforcement, observational learning, modeling, and assignment of responsibilities designed to bolseter self-esteem.


Are boys or girls more likely to "stray" from playing with gender-typed toys?


- Boys

- Girls

- There is no difference

- It depends on how much television the child watches

- Either group, only when guided by adults




There is less of a societal stigma for girls to "stray" from playing with gender-typed toys and explore toys typically associated with the opposite gender.


What are the difference between associative play and cooperative play?


- Associative play involves more rules.

- Cooperative play does not involve group goals.

- Associative play is more common in older children.

- Cooperative play involves the purposes of the group.

- Associative play involves more children


Cooperative play involves the purposes of the group.


In assiciative play children merely use shared toys (instead of playing near each other, but still apart, as in parallel play). In cooperative play, group goals and jointly-created rules become part of the game.


Which level of morality centers on typical (family, society, religion) standards of right and wrong?


- Preconventional

- Conventional

- Type A

- Metaconventional

- Postconventional




According to Lawrence Kohlberg, postconventional morality takes into account larger, loftier regulations and standards of family and society than do earlier, more egocentric stages of moral development.


According to Piaget, at what age willa child begin to show autonomous morality?


- 3-4 years

- 5-6 years

- 7-8 years

- 9-11 years

- Over 12 years


9-11 years


Children aged nine to eleven, with a continuously emerging sense of self, are able to begin to operate by individually govered (autonomous) moral standards.


Parenting characterized by consistent control, strong support, and affection for the child, is referred to as:


- impossible

- authoritative

- authoritarian

- permissive

- indulgent




Authorititative parents strike a balance between placing limits on behavior (consistent control) and showing strong support and affection for the child.


The confluence model of development suggests that ....


- multiple family variables flow together to produce important influences on the development of the child

- children's natural tendencies overcome family variables in infuencing their own development

- later-born children tend to be very jealous of first-born children

- nature and nurture have equal effects on children

- None of these


multiple family variables flow together to produce important influences on the development of the child


The confluence model of development suggests that no one isolated variable produces the greatest effect on a child's development' rather, multiple variables combine (or "flow together") to influence development.


What is known about the long-term effects on divorce on children?


- Not enough longitudinal studies have been done on this subject

- Typically, the child bounces back quickly and few show long-term effects.

- The older the child, the more readily they bounce back from the effects of divorce

- Anger toward the parent they perceive as responsible for the breakup persists.

- Children do not blame either parent or themselves.


Anger toward the parent they perceive as responsible for the breakup persists.


Children may place blame for the divorce on a particular parent; years later, anger toward this parent persists.


The gradual transfer of control from parent to child is known as ...


- counterdependence

- transference

- coregulation

- familial interdependence

- countertransference




During middle childhood, along with increasing self-awareness and newfound cognitive abilities, there is a gradual transfer of control from parent to child; this is known as coregulation.


Which of the following situations is likely to lead to negative outcomes for children?


- Having a mother that works part-time outside the home

- Havinga gather who stays at hone, contrary to popular practice

- Havinga mother who works full-time outside the home

- Having a working mother who tells her children how "rewarding" her work is

- Having a stay-at-home mother and financial problems in the family


Having a stay-at-home mother and financial problems in the family


Family stressors that exacerbate parents' career difficulties would be most likely to affect the child negatively. In this case, the financial woes are a key stressor.


In relationship to physical abuse, physical neglect ....


- occurs less frequently

- is more obvious

- is less damaging

- causes more deaths

- leads to more parental arrests


causes more deaths


Neglect that may lead to starvation, failure to thrive, and other medical conditions leads ot more deaths, although physical abuse tends to occur more frequently and appears more often in the headlines.


The effects of regular viewing of Sesame Street ....


- are positive for white children only.

- are inconsistent

- seem to apply across race, gender, and living conditions

- are no longer valid, as the show has lately declined in popularity

- none of these


Seem to apply across race, gender, and living conditions


Several generations of children have benefited cognitively and socially-emotionally from viewing of Sesame Street, irrespective of race, gender, or socioeconomic status.


Which of the following is TRUE about how middle childhood children regulate their behavior?


- There is increasing importance placed on reward and punishment.

- these children increasingly regulate their own behavior

- Boys are much better able to regulate their behavior than girls.

- Modeling ceases to be an effective method for prompting change.

- Larger societal constraints become more influential.


These children increasingly regulate their own behavior.


With less emphasis placed on parental control and increasing ability to weight abstrct notions, these children display more instances of self-regulated behavior.


As self-concept becomes more differentiated, what is likely to happen to self-esteem if a failure occurs in some area?


- The greater the degree of self-differentiation, the lower self-esteem becomes.

- The degree of self-differentiation does not influence self-esteem.

- It depends on gender.

- The greater the degree of self-differntiation, the higher the self-esteem.

- Self-esteem will always be bolstered, given parental support.


The greater the degree of self-differentiation, the lower self-esteem becomes. 


During middle childhood and adolescence, children become more aware of their capabilities, strengths, and weaknesses (self-concept). Taking into account the greater preoccupation with peer/group opinions during this stage of life, self-esteem may decline along with greater awareness of weakness and/or temporary failures.


A stable attribution is one that ...


- has an external locus of control.

- persons who are not depressed tend to make

- has an internal locus of control

- has not currently been the subject of many studies

- appears unchangeable.


appears unchangeable


When we assign cause to an event, a stable attribution involves a sense that we were powerless to change the event. For instance, if a student attributed a bad mark to a teacher's tendency to grade poorly, the attribution would be a stable one due to the student's belief in the immutability of the situation.


Freud called the middle childhood years ...


- the anal stage

- the phallic stage

- the latency stage

- the oral stage

- the genital stage


the latency stage


Freud believed that middle childhood involved a latency (dormant) period with regard to concentration on sexual urges.


According to Erikson, the primary task of adolescence is ...


- to begin developing intimate relationships

- to develop ego identity

- to feel industrious and want to accomplish things

- to refine his/her formal operational thinking

- to seek trust in individuals


to develop ego identity


According to Erikson, adolescents' primary focus is to develop an identy that will later allow them to develop increasingly intimate relationships and generative, rewarding careers.


The affiliation motive strengthens most often when people are in a situation involving ....


-performing a work task

- helping others

- the threat of danger

- independent behavior

- a common goal


the threat of danger


The need to affiliate, to connect with others, is often intensified if a threat of danger is imminent and people need to come together to support each other and face this threat.


Temperament in infants .....


- affects the quality of the parent/child interaction

- develops through both hereditary and environmental influences

- is one of the least important aspects of the first year of development


affects the quality of the parent/child interaction and develops through both hereditary and environmental influences

Infant temperament, an extremely important aspect of the first year of development develops through both hereditary and environmental influences, and colors the parent/child interaction. For instance, an infant who may have a hereditary tendency toward irritability may garner less parental attention due to the diffuculty the parent is experiencing caring for the infant; this, in turn, environmentally reinforces the infant's temperamental predilection, and a vicious cycle ensues.


Of the following, the most common cause of learned helplessness is....


- punishment

- inconsistent reinforcement

- classical conditioning

- failure

- poor parenting




Continual failure may lead to a sense of learned helplessness, where we assume therefore, it was the unconditioned stimulus


The unconditioned stimulus in Pavlov's experiment was the ...


- tone

- salivation

- food

- light

- bell




In Pavlov's famous experiment, it was the food that initially made the dog salivate; therefore, it was the unconditioned stimulus.


When an animal is conditioned to make a response in a particular situation, and will also make the response in similar but different situations, it exhibits the effects of...


- response generalization

- discrimination

- shaping

- stimulus generalization

- extinction


stimulus generalization


The animal is generalizing the response to similar stimuli in different situations; this is called stimulus generalization.


A type of learning NOT initially dependent on a specific stimulus to produce a specifidc response is called ....


- negative reinforcement

- extinction

- operant avoidance

- learned helplessness

- classical conditioning


operant conditioning


According to the principles of operant conditioning, behavior is repeated due to reinforcement following, not preceding, the behavior.


If a baby responds favorably to the sound of its mother's voice but to  no other voices, the baby is evidencing.....


- a phobia

- an unconditioned response

- stimulus generalization

- selective attention

- stimulus discrimination


stimulus discrimination


The baby is discriminating between the most pleasurable stimulus (the mother's voice) and other, less desirable stimuli.


A parent who deliberately ignores a child's temper tantrum is attempting to discourage tantrums by ...


- negative reinforcement

- extinction

- operant avoidance

- learned helplessness

- classical conditioning




In this case, the parents are hoping that with a lack of reinforcement, the child's behavior will be extinguished.


Observational learning is often referred to as.....


- modeling

- insight

- alpha-conditioning

- higher-order conditioning

- imprinting




According to Bandura, another term for observational learning is modeling, where learning occurs through viewing of an action.


What is the best known preschool program for economically disadvantaged children?


- Home

- Focus

- Head Start

- Early Jump

- JumpStart


Head Start


Started in the 1960s and written about extensively since then, Head start, and its component in the toddler years, Early Head Start, is currently the best known early childhood program serving economically disadvantaged children, a sizeable percentage of them with special needs.


Bandura suggests that girls with ____ are more likely to select non-traditional careers.


- younger sisters

- brothers

- a father figure in the home

- high self-efficiency

- low self-esteem


high self-efficiency


According to Albert Bandura, girls with high self-efficacy, or the perceived ability to succeed at tasks, would be more likely to select non-traditional, challenging careers.


Parent training which combines limit-setting with negotiation would lead to parents who....


- are authoritative

- encounter less turnoil with their adolescents

- have children who do better in school

- are more self-reflective

- All of the choices are correct


All choices are correct


Parent training which advocates both firmness and flexibility in child-rearing style - the combination of limit-setting with negotiation - would lead to all of the positive outcomes noted above.


Why might girls have a more difficult transition into junior highschool than boys?


- They are more emotional than boys

- Boys are more likely to join groups that ease the transition.

- Girls are likely to be undergoing pubertal changes at the same time.

- They are not. This transition is actually harder on boys because of competitive expectations.

- Academics become more challenging.


Girls are likely to be undergoing pubertal changes at the same time.


The junior high transition is difficult for girls because at the same time, their bodies are changing. For instance, with the onset of puberty girls may become taller than the boys in the class; this, along with other physical developments, can make them self-conscious.


Vulnerability to mental disorders can be affected by ....


- a person's current social environment

- the character of earlier environments

- genetic predispositions

- poor quality of the educational environment

- all of the choices are correct


all of the choices are correct


All of the above factors, or combinations thereof, can trigger symptoms of a mental/psychological disorder.


The classification of emotional disorders used by most mental health provessions is called the .....



- Kraepelin Guidebook

- Mental Health Manual

- Psychological Handbook

- Merck Manual




The diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) is now in its fourth edition.


Lance realizes his intense fear of snakes is irrational, but he can alleviate the fear only by avoiding any areas where snakes might appear. Lance is suffering from a(n)...


- phobic disorder

- obsessive-compulsive disorder

- generalized anxiety disorder

- panic disorder

- bipolar disorder


phobic disorder


A phobic disorder involves an intense fear of a specific situation, such as being enclosed, being alone, or being near snakes. Therapeutic treatment might include gradual desensitization techniques.


Research has found all of the following about obsessive-compulsive disorder EXCEPT .....


- about a fifth of those with the disorder have tics.

- there is a disruption of the pathways that link the frontal lobes to the cerebellum and brainstem.

- it is caused by a disrupted relationship with the mother in the first years of life.

- the disorder runs in families and may have a genetic basis.

- the disorder may involve a series of frantic rituals


it is caused by a disrupted relationship with the mother in the first years of life


There is no proof that obsessive-compulsive disorder stems from a fragile mother-child relationship.


Which of the following may accompany autism?


- Preservation of sameness

- Echolalia

- Self-stimulation

- Mental retardation

- All of the above


All of the above


Autism may include all of the above characteristics, although not necessarily always all four.

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