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CIVICS - 3RD 9 WEEKS STUDY ITEMS
TEST REVIEW
237
Civics
7th Grade
03/07/2015

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Term
natural law
Definition
is the idea that human nature is based on reason; human beings are entitled to certain rights such as life and freedom.
Term
natural rights
Definition
guaranteed to human beings simply because they are born, these rights are considered to be universal, which means that these rights are guaranteed to everyone.
Term
social contract
Definition
is created when an organized society defines rights, duties and limits for the people and the government.
Term
Magna Carta
Definition
is a document that was developed by English citizens to require King John of England to protect certain rights of the people and to limit the king’s powers.
Term
English Bill of Rights
Definition
is a document that was written with the purpose of protecting peoples’ rights and stated that every citizen possesses individual rights which are unbreakable. The rights in the document are enumerated, or listed and include the right to bear arms in defense and the right to petition the monarch.
Term
Mayflower Compact
Definition
was a document to set up a government and write down the first set of laws for the settlers who arrived in Plymouth, Massachusetts. This document introduced the idea of self-government.
Term
Common Sense
Definition
s a pamphlet that encouraged colonists to seek independence from England and to move toward self-government.
Term
writ of habeus corpus
Definition
court order requiring that a person who has been arrested be brought into court)
Term
Declaration of Independence
Definition
in this document, the colonists wrote that they held certain truths to be self-evident, or clear, that all men are created equal and they have certain unalienable rights that include life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
Term
We the People
Definition
By beginning the U.S. Constitution in this way, the writers were making it clear that the people were creating and running the government (self-government.)
Term
Stamp Act
Definition
taxed all printed materials, such as newspapers, legal documents and playing cards. Colonists viewed this act as unfair because the taxes went directly to the English government, and not into the colonial governments
Term
Thomas Paine
Definition
published Common Sense, a 50-page pamphlet criticized King George III and argued for the colonies to be independent from England.
Term
Thomas Jefferson
Definition
wrote Declaration of Independence, which was formally supported by the colonial Congress on July 4, 1776.
Term
Declaration of Independence
Definition
according to this document, government does not give individuals these natural rights—individuals are born with these rights and government protects these rights through the consent of the governed.
Term
Articles of Confederation
Definition
The first government of the United States
Term
Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
Definition
Congress could not collect money from the states to create and pay for an army and navy to defend the nation. - COULD NOT TAX

6. Congress could not make laws about the types of goods coming into the country. As well, the states may have had different policies related to trade. - COULD NOT REGULATE TRADE

7. Congress had no power to enforce its own laws

8. The national government lacked a national court system - NO JUDICIAL BRANCH

9. There was no chief executive who could manage the national government. - NO PRESIDENT

10. Changing the government was very difficult.
Term
The Preamble
Definition
begins with the phrase “We the People, of the United States” and then states six goals and purposes of the government.
Term
Limited government
Definition
means that government can do only what the people allow it to do.
Term
separation of powers
Definition
sets up three branches with their own distinct powers and responsibilities.
Term
checks and balances
Definition
allows each branch of government to limit the power of the other branches.
Term
legislative
Definition
this branch has the power to create new laws
Term
executive
Definition
branch has the power to carry out and enforce laws
Term
judicial
Definition
this branch has the power to interpret laws
Term
executive
Definition
this branch may veto laws passed by Congress
Term
president
Definition
this person can make treaties, but they must be ratified by the Senate
Term
legislative
Definition
this branch can impeach and convict the president, other members of the executive branch, and federal judges
Term
congress
Definition
may pass laws over the president's veto by two-thirds majority vote of both houses
Term
senate
Definition
may reject appointments made by the president
Term
Supreme Court
Definition
may declare executive actions and laws passed by Congress unconstitutional
Term
Marbury v. Madison
Definition
The Supreme Court case that established the power of judicial review
Term
Federalists
Definition
spread their views in writings called the Federalist Papers, wanted the states to ratify the Constitution
Term
Anti-Federalists
Definition
were against the ratification of the Constitution and only wanted to make minor changes to the government as set up under the Articles of Confederation
Term
Necessary and Proper Clause
Definition
also known as the “elastic clause,” of the Constitution would give too much power to the Congress
Term
Bill of Rights
Definition
The Anti-Federalists thought it was important for the Constitution to include this
Term
rule of law
Definition
laws apply equally to everyone regardless of their position in society
Term
Article 6
Definition
this article of the U.S. Constitution contains the the supremacy clause
Term
statutes or statutory laws
Definition
are written laws enacted by a legislature
Term
regulations
Definition
are the rules an agency of the executive branch makes to enforce a law
Term
case law
Definition
this type of law is established by the outcome of former court cases
Term
common law
Definition
this type of law is legal precedent based on customs and prior legal decisions and is used in civil cases
Term
The U.S. Constitution
Definition
is the supreme law of the land and states cannot create laws that conflict with it
Term
civil law
Definition
this type of law deals with issues that are not related to crime
Term
constitutional law
Definition
this type of law defines the powers between states, deals with the relationship between the government and states, and between government and citizens
Term
the state
Definition
Persons who break state statutes will be tried by this
Term
juvenile law
Definition
this type of law mainly deals with criminal law for people under the age of 18 because they do not have the same obligations, responsibilities, or powers as adult citizens
Term
military law
Definition
type of law consists of laws that have been developed to meet the needs of the military
Term
14th Amendment
Definition
defines citizenship as belonging to anyone who is born in the United States or is an immigrant who has completed the naturalization process
Term
law of soil
Definition
If a person is born in the United States, in one of its territories, or on a U.S. military base.
Term
law of blood
Definition
U.S. citizenship is passed to the child from the natural mother or father
Term
Citizenship
Definition
as defined by the 14th Amendment, are guaranteed their natural rights to life, liberty, and property which cannot be taken away without due process of law
Term
requirements for U.S. citizenship
Definition
1. Immigrants must: be at least 18 years old.

2. Have been a resident of the United States for five years.

3. File for a petition for naturalization.

4. Take a test to show that they can read, write, and speak English, and demonstrate knowledge of American history and the U.S. Constitution.

5. Have two U.S. citizens confirm that the applicant will be of good moral character.

6. Take the “Oath of Allegiance.
Term
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Definition
a federal law that banned race discrimination in voting practices by federal, state, and local governments
Term
obligations
Definition
An action that is required by law
Term
COMMON GOOD
Definition
An action that benefits the community/people. - something a person should do
Term
common good
Definition
beliefs or actions that are seen as a benefit to the larger community rather than individual interests
Term
bill of rights
Definition
the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution.
Term
1st Amendment
Definition
includes five individual freedoms (free speech, press, religious exercise, peaceable assembly, and petitioning the government.
Term
constitutionality or constitutional
Definition
whether or not something is legal under the U.S. Constitution
Term
Eminent domain
Definition
the right of the government to take private property for public use; the Fifth Amendment requires that fair compensation be made when property is taken under eminent domain.
Term
pleading the fifth
Definition
the act of a person refusing to testify under oath in a court of law on the grounds that the answers could be used as evidence against him to convict him of a criminal offense
Term
search and seizure
Definition
the process by which police or other authorities who suspect that a crime has been committed do a search of a person's property and collect any relevant evidence to the crime; protection from illegal search and seizure is in the Fourth Amendment
Term
Self-incrimination
Definition
the right in the Fifth Amendment that protects a person from being forced to reveal to the police, prosecutor, judge, or jury any information that might subject him or her to criminal prosecution.
Term
rights of the accused
Definition
the rights included in the Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Amendments: protection from unreasonable search and seizure, double jeopardy, and self-incrimination, the right to due process, right to a speedy and public trial, trial by jury, the right to be informed of criminal charges, right to be confronted by adverse witnesses, right to an attorney, protection from self-incrimination.
Term
trial by jury
Definition
a trial in which the issue is determined by a judge and a jury, usually with 12 members, whose job is to determine facts and make a judgment of guilty or not guilty; protected in the Sixth Amendment
Term
Tinker v. Des Moines
Definition
U.S. Supreme Court case that upheld a student’s First Amendment right to engage in symbolic speech in school
Term
Miranda v. Arizona
Definition
U.S. Supreme Court cases that upheld the Fifth Amendment protection from self-incrimination.
Term
precedent
Definition
a court decision in an earlier case with facts and legal issues similar to those in a case currently before a court.
Term
Ex post facto law
Definition
a law that makes an act a crime after the crime has been committed
Term
Habeas corpus
Definition
the principle that keeps the government from holding a citizen indefinitely without showing cause
Term
public interest
Definition
common benefit, the general benefit of the public
Term
Schenck v. U.S.
Definition
determined that rights may be limited when the public interest is threatened or at risk
Term
clear and present danger rule
Definition
a violation when act of speech create a dangerous situation
Term
1st Amendment
Definition
this amendment does not protect speech that would create a “clear and present danger
Term
Appellate or appeals process
Definition
the process of asking a higher court to decide whether a trial was conducted properly
Term
5th Amendment
Definition
an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that provides protections to a person accused of a crime, including the right of due process.
Term
14th Amendment
Definition
an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that defines citizenship, grants citizenship to former slaves and defines voters as males at least 21 years of age
Term
Civil disobedience
Definition
the refusal to obey certain laws as a form of political protest
Term
13th Amendment
Definition
ratified in 1865, made slavery illegal in the United States
Term
14th Amendment
Definition
ratified in 1868, stated that anyone born in the United States was a citizen of the United States and that they had the same rights as any other citizen of the United States.
Term
15th Amendment
Definition
ratified in 1870, stated specifically that race could not be a factor in denying someone the right to vote
Term
24th Amendment
Definition
ratified in 1964, said that failure to pay a poll tax could not be a reason for a person to be denied the right to vote
Term
26th Amendment
Definition
ratified in 1971, said that any United States citizen age 18 or older could vote when up to that point the federal government, and some states, allowed only persons age 21 or older to vote
Term
literacy test
Definition
a test used to determine whether or not someone was eligible to register vote.
Term
civil rights
Definition
the rights belonging to citizens; traditionally refers to the basic rights to be free from unequal treatment based on certain protected characteristics (i.e. race, gender, disability)
Term
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Definition
a federal law that prohibits employment discrimination based on race, sex, color, religion, or national origin
Term
Civil Rights Act of 1968
Definition
a federal law that prohibits discrimination related to the sale, rental and financing of housing based on race, religion, national origin or sex
Term
Bush v. Gore
Definition
U.S. Supreme Court case that determined that states cannot violate the Equal Protection Clause under the Fourteenth Amendment when conducting election recounts
Term
District of Columbia v. Heller
Definition
U.S. Supreme Court case that upheld that the Second Amendment protects an individual’s right to own a firearm
Term
Gideon v. Wainwright
Definition
U.S. Supreme Court case that upheld the Sixth Amendment right that all defendants must be appointed a lawyer if they cannot afford their own attorney
Term
Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier
Definition
U.S. Supreme Court case that determined that the First Amendment does not protect all types of student speech in school
Term
United States v. Nixon
Definition
U.S. Supreme Court case that limited executive privilege
Term
Equal protection clause
Definition
the section of the Fourteenth Amendment that says that states must apply the law equally and cannot discriminate against citizens or groups of citizens
Term
Executive privilege
Definition
the belief that the conversations between the president and his aides are confidential
Term
Plessy v. Ferguson
Definition
U.S. Supreme Court case that determined that “separate but equal” segregation was not discrimination
Term
Brown v. Board of Education
Definition
U.S. Supreme Court case that determined that “separate but equal” segregation was not equal in public education
Term
In re Gault
Definition
U.S. Supreme Court case that determined that juvenile court must comply with the Fourteenth Amendment
Term
Marbury v. Madison
Definition
U.S. Supreme Court case that established judicial review (the power of the U.S. courts to examine the laws or actions of the legislative and executive branches of the government and to determine whether such actions are consistent with the U.S. Constitution)
Term
Communist Party
Definition
a political party that believes the government should control all production and distribution of goods and working people should control their own lives and destinies.
Term
Democratic Party
Definition
a political party that believes that the federal government should take a more active role in people's lives, particularly those who are in need
Term
Libertarian Party
Definition
a political party that believes in individual freedom and the only purpose of government is to protect this freedom platform
Term
Republican Party
Definition
a political party that believes that the federal government should play a small role in people's lives; they favor lower taxes and less government spending
Term
Socialist Party
Definition
a political party that believes people should own and control industry through democratically controlled public agencies, cooperatives, or other collective groups
Term
majority party
Definition
the political party with the most elected members
Term
minority party
Definition
the political party second in number of elected members to the majority party
Term
President
Definition
At least 35 years old, has lived in the U.S. for 14 years, is a natural born citizen, up to 2 four year terms (8 years)
Term
U.S. House of Representatives
Definition
at least 25, 7 years as citizen, must live in the state they represent, term is 2 years
Term
U.S. Senate
Definition
at least 30, 9 years as citizen, must live in the state they represent, term is 6 years
Term
Governor
Definition
At least 30 years old, Resident of the state for at least 5 years, May not serve more than two 4-year terms
Term
Florida House of Representatives and Florida Senate
Definition
U.S. citizen, Lives in the district represented, State resident for at least 2 years, At least 21 years old
Term
special interest groups
Definition
people who are concerned with some particular issue or part of the government and who try to influence legislators or to act in their favor
Term
lobbying
Definition
to conduct activities in order to influence public officials
Term
political action committee
Definition
an independent political organization that seeks to promote the cause of a particular interest group, usually through raising money and campaigning to elect candidates who support the group's views
Term
media
Definition
plural form of the word “medium,” refers to various means of communication
Term
watchdog
Definition
a person or group who acts as a protector or guardian
Term
lobbyist
Definition
a person who conducts activities in order to influence public officials
Term
bias
Definition
a preference, opinion or attitude that favors one way of thinking or feeling over another.
Term
propaganda
Definition
the method of spreading ideas or information for the purpose of helping or injuring an institution, a cause, or a person
Term
symbolism
Definition
the use of something to represent ideas or qualities
Term
Governmental agency
Definition
is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the government that is responsible for specific functions related to an area of the government (i.e., Florida Department of Health, Florida Department of Citrus)
Term
Public policy
Definition
government actions in the form of laws, rules or regulations.
Term
lawmakers
Definition
members of a legislature that draft and pass laws (i.e., U.S. Representative, U.S. Senator, state representative, state senator, city council member)
Term
school board
Definition
the group of persons elected to manage local public schools.
Term
superintendent
Definition
the leader of a school district
Term
U.S. Supreme Court
Definition
the highest court of the United States; it sits at the top of the federal court system
Term
veto
Definition
a decision by an executive authority such as a president or governor to reject a proposed law or statute
Term
Congress
Definition
the national legislative body of the U.S., consisting of the Senate, or upper house, and the House of Representatives, or lower house
Term
checks and balances
Definition
a principle of the federal government, according to the U.S. Constitution, that allows each branch of government to limit the power of the other branches
Term
Supremacy clause
Definition
the clause that states that the U.S. Constitution is the supreme law of the land, and that national laws are supreme over state laws, found in Article VI
Term
Florida Declaration of Rights
Definition
the part of the Florida Constitution that lists the basic rights guaranteed to all citizens who live in the state
Term
U.S. Amendment ratification process
Definition
(1) three-fourths of the state legislatures can vote to ratify the amendment or (2) three fourths of states can call for a ratifying convention which can be used to ratify the amendment.
Term
State Amendment ratification process
Definition
. Voters in the state must agree to amend the Florida Constitution. Amendments are included on Election Day ballots. Voters vote “yes” or “no” to proposed amendments. An amendment can only be added to the Florida Constitution if 60% or more of those voting vote “yes”
Term
alliance
Definition
a union between nations for assistance and protection
Term
diplomacy
Definition
the work of keeping up relations between the governments of different countries
Term
domestic policy
Definition
a course of action chosen to guide people in making decisions about their own country
Term
foreign policy
Definition
a course of action chosen in order to guide people in making decisions about other countries
Term
treaty
Definition
an agreement or arrangement between two or more countries
Term
Secretary of State
Definition
the head of the U.S. Department of State; a member of the President’s Cabinet
Term
ambassador
Definition
a person sent as the chief representative of his or her own government in another country
Term
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Definition
group of 28 countries that has agreed to protect each other in case of attack; founded in 1949
Term
allies
Definition
nations united with another for some common purpose such as assistance and protection
Term
5 things that U.S. Foreign Policy promotes
Definition
promoting peace, National Security, Spreading Democracy, Promoting International Trade, Providing Foreign Aid
Term
cabinet
Definition
persons appointed by a head of state to head executive departments of government and act as official advisers
Term
United Nations (UN)
Definition
is headquartered in New York City. It was founded after World War II and is an organization that keeps peace and helps to develop friendly relationships between and among countries. Contains 193 countries
Term
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Definition
The governments of the United States, Mexico and Canada encourage the purchase and sale of each other’s goods
Term
World Trade Organization (WTO)
Definition
Countries may join and make agreements related to trade and taxes
Term
International Court of Justice (World Court)
Definition
offers legal advice to the UN and handles international legal concerns such as boundary issues and debt payments
Term
International Red Cross/ Red Crescent
Definition
Individuals and governments can support this international organization by donating money, raising awareness, and volunteering. - 97 million volunteers
Term
United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
Definition
provides long-term help and care to mothers and children in developing nations (vaccinations, education, nutrition)
Term
NonGovernmental Organizations (NGO) and International (INGO)
Definition
They are private organizations that work to relieve suffering, promote the interests of the poor, protect the environment, provide basic social services, or assist with community development.
Term
Gulf War I
Definition
a military conflict in 1991 between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations mandated by the United Nations and led by the U.S., also known as the Persian Gulf War
Term
Gulf War II
Definition
the 2003 military conflict in Iraq, also called the Iraq War or "Operation Iraqi Freedom", began March 20, 2003, initiated by the U.S., the United Kingdom and other nations
Term
Korean War
Definition
a war between North and South Korea; South Korea was aided by the U.S. and other members of the United Nations from 1950-1953
Term
Vietnam War
Definition
a military conflict (1954-1975) between the Communist forces of North Vietnam supported by China and the Soviet Union and the non-Communist forces of South Vietnam supported by the U.S.
Term
World War I
Definition
a war between the allies (Russia, France, British Empire, Italy, U.S., Japan, Romania, Serbia, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro) and the central powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria) from 1914 to 1918
Term
World War II
Definition
a war that began on July 7, 1937 in Asia and September 1, 1939 in Europe and lasted until 1945; it involved most of the world’s countries
Term
terrorism
Definition
the use of extreme fear as a means of achieving a goal
Term
Bays of Pigs Invasion (Cuba, 1961)
Definition
The United States led this attempted invasion in hopes of putting an end to the threat of communism so close to the U.S. (Cuba is only 90 miles away from the Florida Keys)
Term
Cuban Missile Crisis (Cuba, 1962)
Definition
In 1962, tensions were high between communist and non-communist nations during the Cuban Missile Crisis. The USSR (Soviet Russia) decided to put missiles in Cuba to threaten the U.S. President Kennedy threatened military action and after a 13-day political and military standoff, the tense situation ended and further conflict, including war, was avoided
Term
Iran Hostage Crisis (Iran, 1979-1980)
Definition
In 1979, a group of Iranian students supporting the Iranian Revolution took over the U.S. embassy in Tehran, Iran and held 66 U.S. citizen diplomats hostage for 444 days. During the Iranian Hostage Crisis President Carter said that the U.S. would “not yield to blackmail”, which meant that the U.S. was not willing to use diplomacy to secure the release of the hostages. After Ronald Reagan was elected president in 1980, diplomacy was used with Iran and the hostages were released on January 20, 1981, the day of President Reagan’s inauguration.
Term
Terrorism September 11th, 2001
Definition
On September 11, 2001, terrorists hijacked (took by force) four airplanes in the U.S. and flew them into the World Trade Center in New York City, NY and the Pentagon in Virginia, near Washington, DC. Another plane crashed into a field in Pennsylvania. Over 3,000 Americans lost their lives as a result of this attack
Term
Commander in Chief
Definition
one role of the president is to lead the U.S. military forces
Term
Communist
Definition
a form of government in which a single ruling party owns and controls all production and distribution of goods, and in which no private ownership is allowed
Term
different methods that have been used by the United States in order to deal with international conflicts
Definition
Declaring war, diplomacy, military invasions, developing alliances with other nations, joining international organizations such as NATO or the UN, increasing tariffs (taxes levied on imported or exported goods) and trade barriers (limitations on trading certain goods or with certain nations), isolation (not getting involved in other nations’ conflicts) or treaties
Term
direct democracy
Definition
a political philosophy that means “rule by the people”
Term
Representative Democracy
Definition
also known as a republic. In this form of government, a country is ruled by representatives that have been elected by the citizens. In a republic, all adult citizens have the right to vote and the power of the government is limited by a constitution
Term
monarchy
Definition
a form of government where power is held by one person. This person is in power because they have been born into the ruling family and they may rule for life
Term
Oligarchy
Definition
a form of government where a country is ruled by a small group of wealthy people. In this form of government, the power is held by the rich
Term
autocracy
Definition
a form of government where one person has unlimited power
Term
autocracies
Definition
examples include dictatorships (complete control by a military leader) and absolute monarchies (complete control by a king, queen, prince or princess).
Term
absolute monarchy
Definition
In early European history, government power was held by a variety of kings, queens, princes and princesses who ruled their kingdoms with mostly unlimited powers.
Term
Parliamentary
Definition
A system of government where the power lies with the legislative body and the leader of the country is a part of the legislature. Citizens indirectly elect officials through their participation in political parties. (The people choose the political party they like, and then the party chooses party members to serve as a representative of the people
Term
federal
Definition
A system of government where the power is shared between the central government and the states. Citizens elect members of the legislative branch, the executive branch and some members of the judicial branch.
Term
confederal
Definition
A system of government where the power is given to independent states and there is little or no central power. Citizens elect members of the legislative branch, the executive branch and some members of the judicial branch
Term
Parliamentary
Definition
Citizens vote for the political party they like best. The party that receives the majority of the votes comes to power in the legislature and the legislature elects the leader
Term
federal
Definition
Power is shared and divided between the central government and the states. Citizens elect officials at all levels of government
Term
confederal
Definition
Independent states have individual powers. There is no central government. Citizens elect officials of their own state for the legislative, executive and judicial responsibilities
Term
unitary
Definition
the central government has all of the power. The people do not participate in the selection of leaders and the central government makes all decisions for the country
Term
Parliamentary
Definition
In New Zealand, the government is centered on the legislature and the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is the leader of the political party that has a majority of seats in the legislature.
Term
federal
Definition
Argentina’s government has an elected President, National Congress and Supreme Court. Argentina has provinces, or states, that have their own constitutions and legislative, executive and judicial powers. The central government shares powers with those provinces
Term
confederal or confederation
Definition
The European Union is a partnership between 27 countries in Europe. Everything that happens between those countries is based on treaties (formal agreements) that are voluntarily agreed upon by members.
Term
unitary
Definition
Japan’s government is organized with a strong, central government. The legislative branch in Japan is called The Diet and the executive branch is led by the Prime Minister and group of other lower ministers of the state. The 47 provinces, or states, around Japan rely on the central government for money and support
Term
Article I
Definition
Legislative Branch - The power to collect taxes 2. The power to coin money 3. The power to make laws/control immigration 4. The power to make laws/control trade 5. The power to create an army and navy 6. The power to impeach and remove officials from office 7. To approve presidential appointments
Term
Article II
Definition
2. Article II – Executive Branch - The power to enforce the laws (Chief Executive; “he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed”) 2. The power to send troops into combat (Commander in Chief; “The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States”) 3. The power to make treaties and with leaders of other nations 4. The power to nominate people to serve in the Cabinet, in the Supreme Court and to other high government positions 5. The power to grant pardons, except in cases of impeachment
Term
Article III
Definition
Judicial Branch - Article III of the Constitution describes the powers set aside for the Supreme Court. These include: 1. The power of original jurisdiction (the power to be the first court to hear a case) in cases that involve: a. Ambassadors b. Maritime (high seas, naval) issues c. Arguments between two or more states d. Problems that involve the United States government 2. All other cases, not listed above, are given to the Court under their appellate jurisdiction (hearing a case that has been heard by a lower court first)
Term
judicial branch
Definition
is made up of the United States Supreme Court and all of the lower courts including federal, state and local courts
Term
Enumerated or delegated powers
Definition
the powers specifically named and assigned to the federal government or prohibited to be exercised by the states under the U.S. Constitution
Term
federalism
Definition
a system of government in which power is divided and shared between national, state, and local government
Term
reserved powers
Definition
powers that are not granted to the federal government that belong to (are reserved to) the states and the people
Term
concurrent powers
Definition
are powers that are shared by the national and state governments. Examples of shared powers are: 1. The power to levy taxes (tax the people). 2. The ability to borrow money
Term
enumerated powers
Definition
that are specifically listed in the Constitution for the national government. Examples of powers granted to the national government are: 1. The power to raise and support an army and navy. 2. The power to coin money. 3. The power to declare war
Term
reserved powers
Definition
are powers that are given to the states by the Tenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution which states that any power not specifically granted to the national government is reserved to the states. Examples of powers that belong to the states: 1. The power to run elections. 2. The power to establish schools.
Term
delegated powers
Definition
are powers that are specifically listed in the Constitution for the national government. Additional examples of power granted to the national government are: 1. The power to regulate trade and commerce. 2. The power to establish rules for naturalization. 3. The power to declare war
Term
10th Amendment
Definition
the final amendment in the Bill of Rights, it states: ”The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.”
Term
Necessary and proper clause
Definition
the power of Congress to make laws that they need to carry out their enumerated powers
Term
Supremacy clause
Definition
the clause that states that the U.S. Constitution is the supreme law of the land, and that national laws are supreme over state laws
Term
Article V
Definition
describes two methods for proposing amendments and two methods for ratifying amendments
Term
Writ of certiorari
Definition
the procedure to see if the U.S. Supreme Court will hear a case; a writ of certiorari is issues when a higher level court agrees to hear an appeal of an inferior court’s decision
Term
Summary judgment
Definition
a judgment decided by a trial court without that case going to trial; is an attempt to stop a case from going to trial
Term
judicial review
Definition
the power of the U.S. courts to examine the laws or actions of the legislative and executive branches of the government and to determine whether such actions are consistent with the U.S. Constitution
Term
Forced internment
Definition
the confinement of a group of people, especially during a war
Term
committee
Definition
a group of House or Senate (or both) members gathered to discuss and debate proposed legislation and issues on specific topics
Term
presidential appointments
Definition
the power of the U.S. President to choose members of his or her cabinet, ambassadors to other nations, and other officials in his or her administration
Term
executive order
Definition
an order that comes from the U.S. President or a government agency and must be obeyed like a law
Term
committee
Definition
a group of House or Senate (or both) members gathered to discuss and debate proposed legislation and issues on specific topics
Term
presidential appointments
Definition
the power of the U.S. President to choose members of his or her cabinet, ambassadors to other nations, and other officials in his or her administration
Term
executive order
Definition
an order that comes from the U.S. President or a government agency and must be obeyed like a law
Term
ordinances
Definition
are regulations that govern a local
Term
statutes
Definition
state laws
Term
act
Definition
legislation which has passed both houses of Congress in identical form, been signed into law by the president, or passed over his veto, therefore becoming law
Term
an idea
Definition
Each bill begins as this
Term
pocket vetoes
Definition
Bills on which the president takes no action when less than 10 days remain in the congressional session
Term
committee
Definition
a group of legislators gathered to discuss and debate proposed legislation and issues on specific topics
Term
state house of representatives
Definition
the lower house of a state legislature (i.e., Florida House of Representatives)
Term
governor
Definition
the head of a state government
Term
state legislator
Definition
a member of the Florida House of Representatives (state representative) or Florida Senate (state senator)
Term
state senate
Definition
the upper house of a state legislature (i.e., Florida Senate)
Term
U.S. House of Representatives -
Definition
the lower house of the U.S. Congress
Term
U.S. Senate
Definition
the upper house of the U.S. Congress
Term
U.S. Senator
Definition
a member of the U.S. Senate elected to represent an entire state, there are two senators per state
Term
veto
Definition
a decision by an executive authority such as a president or governor to reject a proposed law or statute
Term
county courts
Definition
The lowest courts in Florida
Term
county courts
Definition
a court that hears both civil and criminal cases in one specific county
Term
municipal courts
Definition
are courts found in large cities and are divided into traffic,
juvenile, and small claims courts
Term
Small claims courts
Definition
decide civil cases involving minor amounts of money
Term
plaintiffs
Definition
people filing lawsuits
Term
defendants
Definition
people being sued
Term
circuit courts
Definition
the second level of florida courts
Term
Florida District Court of Appeals
Definition
an appellate court in the state court system
Term
Florida Supreme Court
Definition
highest court in Florida
Term
circuit court
Definition
More serious crimes (felonies) and civil cases involving large amounts of money (more than $1000) are heard at this court level
Term
district courts
Definition
the lowest federal courts
Term
jurisdiction
Definition
the right and power for courts to hear a case, interpret and apply the law
Term
U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals -
Definition
the courts where parties who are dissatisfied with the judgment of a U.S. District court may take their case
Term
U.S. District Courts
Definition
the courts where most federal cases begin, the U.S. District Courts are courts of original jurisdiction and hear civil and criminal cases
Term
U.S Supreme Court
Definition
he highest court of the United States; it sits at the top of the federal court system
Term
cross-examination
Definition
the follow-up questioning of a witness by the side that did not call the witness to the stand
Term
jury
Definition
a group of citizens sworn to give a true verdict according to the evidence presented in a court
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