Term
Why study research methods? L1 

Definition
 to understand the source of much CHYS knowledge survive upper year courses! to have an edge in the workplaces 


Term
Authority (Ways of knowing)L1 

Definition
scientific method is the only way of knowing  simplistic, but quality of information related to quality of source.  every research study uses this method. 


Term
Rational Method (Ways of knowing)L1 

Definition
 Relies on past knowledge plus logic  used when direct observations dangerous, impractical, unethical every research study uses the rational method. 


Term
Empirical Method (Ways of knowing)L1 

Definition
 Sense experience (taste, touch, smell, sight, hearing)is the only basis for knowing can range from simple observation to more complicated. 


Term

Definition
1) Begin with an observation 2) Form a hypothesis 3) Make a prediction 4) Conduct observations 5)Based on observations, form a new hypothesis. 


Term
How do you go about changing topics into numbers? L2 

Definition
Pretest results, stem and leaf, box plot, histogram 


Term

Definition
Did you measure what you said you would measure? 


Term

Definition


Term
Nominal (Levels of Measurement) L2 

Definition
Gives a name to data points. (identity) Measurement does not assign people to groups but an identity. i.e., male/female, attachment theory. 


Term
Ordinal (Levels of Measurement) L2 

Definition
Orders data points, presented in order of complexity (rank order). Does not give degree/scale. 


Term
Interval (Levels of Measurement) L2 

Definition
Specifies the distance between increments. 


Term
Ratio (Levels of Measurement) L2 

Definition
like interval, but has a true zero (absence). 


Term

Definition
Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Ratio (Levels of Measurement) 


Term
A typical selfreport Scale. L2 

Definition
multiple items targeting the same construct participant selects how true each statement is 


Term

Definition
 a statement a participant is asked evaluate construct. Referenced against subjective criteria  5 gradations of endorsement  multiple items are summed/averaged and treated as an interval scale 


Term

Definition
Research version of concept/idea idea and how it is measured. 


Term
General Research Ethics L3 

Definition
1) Respect for human dignity 2)Free and informed consent 3)Respect for vulnerable persons 4) Privacy and confidentiality 5)justice and inclusiveness 6) Balancing harms and benefits 


Term
1st principle of modern research ethics: L3 

Definition
Protect all the interest of participants: bodily, psychologically, and cultural 


Term
Lack of protection towards participants are demonstrated by what group/study L3 

Definition
Nazis experimentation (concentration and science camps) 


Term
Lack of free and informed consent demonstrated by what groups/study (2) L3 

Definition
Tuskegee Syphilis Study and Thalidomide Incident 


Term
Two reasons why free and informed consent can be difficult. L3 

Definition
1) Not just simple as agreeing to terminate 2) Complicated for children, mentally incompetent, those institutionalized. (vulnerable) 


Term
Give one study that demonstrates the special considerations of vulnerable persons being ignored. L3 

Definition


Term
Confidentiality (Related to Research Ethics) L3 

Definition
Researchers must ensure there is no link between personal info and identity. 


Term

Definition
No one group unfairly burdened with the harms of research 


Term
How to balance harms and benefits (research study) L3 

Definition
foreseeable harms should not outweigh benefits minimizing harm: participants should be subjected to minimal harm  any harm must be essential to scientific and societal good. 


Term
How to achieve informed consent in research study L3 

Definition
1) Assessment of participants understanding and appreciate of implications 2) assurance that the participant has the freedom to chose without repercussion. 


Term

Definition
truly random assignment i.e. coin toss. 


Term
Systematic Random Sample L4 

Definition
numbers assigned, rules for selecting participants 


Term
Stratified Random Sample L4 

Definition
 defined number per group  downfall: not able to generalize to population 


Term
Proportionate Stratified (Random) Sample L4 

Definition
 sample according to size of each group in the population 


Term
Cluster (Random) Sample L4 

Definition
target population (i.e. kids in classrooms), each cluster different Random Sample of individuals within cluster. 


Term
Descriptive Research Study L4 

Definition
rare, usually done on things that are little known. Tables are common. 


Term
How to identify a experimental or quasiexperimental study L4 

Definition
1) Random assignment of individual to conditions (method sections) 2) Conditions may be called: groups, treatments, interventions, scenarios etc. 3) Conditions must be created by the research if not then Quasi. 4) Rules out alternate explanations 5) High internal validity, sometimes low external validity. 


Term
How to identify a correlational/nonexperimental study. L4 

Definition
Examines the relationship between 2 variables  Look for: "Correlated with" "Associated with" etc. corelation matrix = corelational study  in a correlational study look for statistics.  cannot draw conclusions about individuals only constructs 


Term

Definition
Are the findings to be trusted? 


Term

Definition
Are the findings to be trusted due to how closely the study reflects reality in the population 


Term

Definition
Are the findings to be trusted based on experimental procedures and design. 


Term

Definition
The variable other things influence  Construct researchers are trying to understand measured through frequency, intensity, or duration 


Term

Definition
 First manipulation of DV. Thing you want to effect DV "Predictor Variable" 


Term

Definition
 Measurement and 2nd measurement of DV  How do you know that you are measuring what you are claiming to? 


Term

Definition
Anything that influences scores on DV that isn't IV. 


Term
Limits of Control for Extraneous Variables L5 

Definition
1) Random Assignment 2)Holding Variables constant 3) Control Groups 


Term
Basic Structural Differences of BetweenSubject Designs. L6 

Definition
1) Different Participants for different conditions 2)Every person participates in only one characteristic 


Term
What is a major problem with BetweenSubject Designs. L6 

Definition
Individual Differences (i.e starting mood) makes it hard to get two even groups. 


Term
Why use BetweenSubject Designs? L6 

Definition
Score independence: Any changes in one group did not happen in every group. 


Term

Definition
Every participant participates in every condition. 


Term
What is a major problem with WithinSubject Design? L6 

Definition
 Exposure to one condition is going to effect exposure to 2nd condition 


Term
How to identify BetweenSubject Design L6 

Definition
conditions i.e. mood variant creation of condition research control over the effects manipulation check 


Term
Why are WithinSubject Designs generally used? L7 

Definition
Generally used when problems of design can be avoided, then better then betweensubjects
Little difference in mood, controls variance



Term
How to identify experimental WithinSubject design. L7 

Definition
True independent variable: Researcher creates categories Research has control over effects of IV  may need manipulation check Quasi IV: Categories found not created No control over who is in what category susceptible to multiple confounds 


Term

Definition
Measuring participants on 1st level effects 2nd level etc. 


Term

Definition
When event outside experiment affects DV. 


Term
Solutions for Carryover effect in WithinSubject Design L7 (3) 

Definition
1)Don't use WS. Design 2) Use WS. Design but use this weakness as a strength 3) Turn WS. factor into a BS. factor and do matching procedure. 


Term
When is MatchedSubject Design Used? L7 

Definition
Used when cost of WS. design are too high. 


Term
What is an advantage of MatchedSubject Design L7? 

Definition
Gives the control/sensitivity of a WS. design without downfalls. 


Term
What are the disadvantages of MatchedSubject Design? (3) L7 

Definition
1) Tedious and wasteful 2) Must identify a matching variable 3) Interpretation problems due to biased sampling. 


Term
What is counterbalancing and what is it a solution for? L7 

Definition
Giving each participant a different sequence of the different IV levels. Solution: Sensitivity due to carryover effects. 


Term
When is counterbalancing effective? L7 

Definition
 Effective if there only a few levels (up to four)  more levels prevents all combination of levels from being used. 


Term
What is the use of a LatinSquare? L7 

Definition


Term
Demonstrate an example of a basic Latin square, using ABCDE L7 

Definition
Correct Answer: ABCDE BCDEA CDEAB DEABC EABCD 


Term
Give the formula, and demonstrate an example of balanced Latinsquare design using 12345. L7 

Definition
Formula: 12n 3n1 Correct Answer: 12534 23145 34251 45312 51423 


Term

Definition
1 independent variable that divides participants in group 


Term

Definition
More then 1 IV variable and the independent are crossed with each other 


Term
Explain what the numbers in factorial design represent (i.e. 2x2) L8 

Definition
 Number of Numbers refer to Number of IV. Value of number represents the number of levels for that IV. 


Term
Where are the main effects of differences among the levels of one IV found? L8. 

Definition


Term
How do you report the statistic used to compare means with what symbol. L8 

Definition


Term
How do you report the effect size and what is it? L8 

Definition
d = or n2 how big/important the result is. 


Term
How do you report the probability that a result as big as yours would be found by chance? L8 

Definition


Term
What P value is considered significant? L8 

Definition


Term
Interaction (related to factorial design) L8 

Definition
If one effects changes depending on other IV.  an interaction happens when there is a different 


Term
Assumptions/ requirements of factorial designs. L8 

Definition
1)Independence: Each participant only in 1 condition on each IV. 2) Normality: Data within each cell of the design must be normally distributed 3)Homogeneity of variance: all cell must have similar variances. 


Term
What does a Factorial ANOVA answer? L9 

Definition
Was the independent variable significant? What were the effects? 


Term
Give the different categories of n2? L9 

Definition
small .01 medium .05 large .10 


Term

Definition
Participants randomized to IV. Conclusion: Unobserved variables controlled fewest threats to internal validity 


Term

Definition
Preexisting groups compared Conclusions: Independent Variable might have caused Dependent Variable Multiple threats to Internal Validity 


Term

Definition
Groups formed carefully. Conclude: IV likely caused DV. 


Term
Why use Differential Research? L9 

Definition
When participants cannot randomly assigned difficult/lowfrequency population  when it is unethical to assign groups 


Term
1 disadvantage and 1 advantage of use differential research? L9 

Definition
Advantage: Can do studies that otherwise couldn't be done Disadvantage: Can't trust findings about group differences due to multiple internal validity problems. 


Term
What is a Post Test only nonequivalent control group design (PONCGD)? L9 

Definition
2 groups, measured after 1 group receives treatment etc. 


Term
How can a PONCGD be improved? L9 

Definition
 1) Randomizing prior to assignment 2_ Matching on Control Variable. 


Term
Pretest Postest Nonequivalent Control Group Design (PPNCGD) L9 

Definition
2 groups, measured before and after 1 group receives treatment 


Term
How can an PPNCGD be improved? L9 

Definition
 1) Randomizing prior to assignment matching prior to assessment. 


Term

Definition
Using time & known events to sort out causality  1 group measured for time, then condition is introduced, then measurement continues  If the changes occurs with the even then the event has caused the change 


Term
Problems with a TimeSeries Design L9 

Definition
1) Change takes time to occur 2) Change is not consistent 3) Other events occurring 4) How much change is enough? 


Term
What can be used if there are 2 variables and the concern is their relationship and what does this figure depict? L10 

Definition
Scatterplot, when interpreted portrays the usually imperfect relationship 


Term
Three things important to look for in scatterplots. L10 

Definition
Direction (Positive or Negative) Magnitude/Strength: Depending on Scatter Shape/FormLinear most important. 


Term
Pearson, requires what. L10 

Definition
 Linearly related data Influenced by outliers/extreme scores ranges from 1 to 1 Directional and Nondirectional predictions  Described with the coefficient of determination (r2) 


Term

Definition


Term

Definition


Term

Definition
Kick > < OW
 both cause each other. 


Term
Spurious Relationship L10 

Definition


Term
Extraneous Variable Relationship L10 

Definition


Term
Describe CLPCD (Crosslagged Panel Correlational Design) L10 

Definition
 1 method of ruling out noncausal relationships need longitudal data with repeated measurements of 2 or more points. 


Term
Three things needed to understand a set of scores L11 

Definition
1) Distribution/Shape 2)Central Tendency 3) Dispersion/Spread 


Term
Frequency Distribution Graph L11 

Definition
orders data highest to lowest = x gives value  gives you n at each value and p% for each says nothing about scores as whole 


Term
Stem and leaf display L11 

Definition
 Good technique to see every datapoint and shape info preserves info on proportions can have spilt stems if enough data, to show more precise shape info. 


Term

Definition
Frequency Graph turned on side  n in each x category  if you have interval/ratio data bars will touched  if data is nomina/ordinal, bar graph used instead 


Term
Types of calculation for Central Tendency L11 

Definition
Mode, Median, Mode, Range, Variance, SD 


Term
Strengths and Weaknesses of Mode L11 

Definition
Strengths 1)Quick estimate of central tendency 2)Highest probability of being right Weaknesses 1) Gives no info about distribution 2) Calculations depend on the level of measurement 


Term

Definition
Calculation: Most common score. 


Term

Definition
Calculation: Need to find median location middle score 


Term
Strengths and Weaknesses of Median L11 

Definition
Strengths: 1) Miminizes average distances between itself and other raw scores 2)not sensitive to extreme scores, but still sensitive to overall shape of distribution Weaknesses: 1)May not correspond to an actual score 2) Need special formula if multiple medians 


Term

Definition
Calculation: Sum of all scores divided by number 


Term
Strenghts and Weaknesses of Mean L11 

Definition
Strengths: 1) Value of every score used in finding the mean. 2) Least Biased measures of central tendencies 3)Greater weight to extreme scores Weaknesses: 1) Restricted to interval or ratio data 2) Heavy influenced by extreme scores and the overall shape of distribution 


Term
Variance Strengths and Weakness L11 

Definition
Strengths 1) Gives an estimate of total variability in sample 2) The value of every score is use to calculate 3) Unbiased Weaknesses 1) Not easy to interpret 2) Not a quick, intuitive calculation 


Term
Standard Deviation (SD) L11 

Definition
Strengths  More intuitive than variance  contrasts samples measure on same scale has interesting characteristics Weaknessnes depends on the assumptions about shape not unbiased 


Term

Definition
"extension of corelation" Regression helps you predict the relation to the DV, for someone not in the original study. 


Term
Pearson describes what: L12 

Definition
 Strength and the direction of the relationship. 


Term
How is the Coefficient of Determination displayed? L12 

Definition


Term
What is equation for regression and what does each figure represent? L12 

Definition
Y = bX + A  Y can also be Y1 or ^ Y  Y is predicted DV for participant.  The Y score is predicted by corresponding X score, multiplied by some number and added to another.  b is the slope, tells how much the participants score changes when X changes by 1 unit. a is the intercept, and represents the individuals y score when x is zero, number may not always make sense. 


Term
Complex equation for regression L12 

Definition
Y = b1 X1 + b2 X2....bk Xk + a, R2 


Term
Multiple coefficient of determination L12 

Definition


Term
What is a Standard Error? L12 

Definition
The mean deviation you would expect if you ran the study an infinite number of times with samples of the same size. 


Term
How do you calculate a standard error? L12 

Definition
1)Need a Standard Deviation 2) Divide the SD by the squareroot of N to get SE. 3) Multiply the SE by 1.60 by 1.96 4) Add the result of step 3 to the mean, set aside 5) Subtract the result of 3 to the mean set aside. 6) Graph 


Term
Important things to remember when calculating Standard Error? L12 

Definition
 SE works with multiple means but measures must be identical  need to have standard deviations of all groups  heterogeneous variances may confuse interactions  small numbers with large SE.  Using SE. to graph results, not statistical test. 


Term

Definition
Every statistic has an effect size associated with it.  Involves two means, it is nothing more than the mean difference divided by the standard deviation  if it involves correlation, it is the correlation 


Term
Effect Size Guidelines L12 

Definition
 Small: d 0.20, 0.50, 0.80 r/f/n/w = 0.10 % distribution overlap: 85  medium: d = 0.50, r/f/n/w 0.30, % distribution overlap 67 large 0.80, r/f/n/w 0.50, % distribution overlap 53. 


Term
Cautions on Effect size L12 

Definition
d doesn't work with multiple means  needs to have SD of both groups must have homogeneous variances N doesn't matter but small N will make means unstable.  


Term
When you “know” that you do not want to eat fried worms, even when everyone around you says that they taste great, your decision is based on 

Definition


Term
A restaurant chef tried replacing rice with pasta in one of her recipes to see what would happen. Which method of acquiring knowledge is she using? 

Definition


Term
A patient who demands a second opinion before agreeing to surgery, is doublechecking information obtained by the 

Definition


Term
Adolescents occasionally develop eating disorders. You wonder what is the best way to treat eating disorders. This is an example of getting research ideas from 

Definition


Term
Which item is not provided in a detailed record for item in PsycInfo? 

Definition
details of research methodology 


Term
The method section of a research article typically 

Definition
provides the details of how the research was conducted. 


Term
It is possible for psychologists to study variables such as hunger, motivation, and selfesteem because these variables can be measured by 

Definition


Term
A(n) ________ measure produces similar results when the same individuals are measured under identical conditions. 

Definition


Term
An EEG, heart rate, and brain activity are all examples of ________ measures. 

Definition


Term
Under which circumstance is informed consent not necessary? 

Definition
a public opinion research where participants complete anonymous questionnaires 


Term
Deception is in direct contradiction with which element of the ethical guidelines? 

Definition


Term
Which form of deception is not permitted 

Definition
not telling participants about a possible risk in the study 


Term
The group of individuals from which researchers actually select participants for research studies is called 

Definition


Term
Although a research question usually concerns the _________ the actual research participants are selected from the _________. 

Definition
target population, accessible population 


Term
A researcher asks students to sign up for a research study and then selects the first 15 males and 15 females who sign up. The researcher is using 

Definition


Term
research study begins by separating a sample of 40yearold men into two groups: a high income group and a low income group. A score measuring alcohol use is then obtained for each man. The study intends to determine whether there is a relationship between income and alcohol use. This study is an example of the ____________ research strategy. 

Definition


Term
If a researcher finds that room color influences mood of the adults in a sample, then the researcher would like to conclude that room color affects mood of 

Definition


Term
In a study with a group of individuals being tested in a series of treatment conditions that extends over a relatively long time, it is possible that there will be systematic changes in the participants’ physiology or psychology that occur during the time of the study. If these changes influence the participants’ scores, causing scores at the end of the study to be different from scores at the beginning, the effect is called 

Definition


Term
If a study finds that there is a strong relationship between two variables, this means that 

Definition
you cannot draw a conclusion about the causal relationship between the variables. 


Term
A researcher decides to use only male participants in an experiment comparing two treatment conditions. For this study, what method is being used to control participant gender? 

Definition


Term
What is the advantage of a laboratory study over a field study? 

Definition
increased internal validity 


Term
In a betweensubjects design 

Definition
each participant experiences only one level of the independent variable. 


Term
An advantage of matching a variable across treatments rather than using random assignment to form your groups is that 

Definition
matching guarantees that there is no systematic relationship between participant characteristics and the treatment conditions. 


Term
What is the most common statistical analysis for a singlefactor twogroup design? 

Definition
independent measure t test 


Term
Compared to a betweensubjects design, the variance in a withinsubjects design is greatly reduced because the _______ are measured and statistically removed. 

Definition


Term
A Latin square is used with 

Definition


Term
Differential history effects are a threat to internal validity for which design? 

Definition
pretestposttest nonequivalent control group design 


Term
The prepost designs are similar to withinsubjects designs, however in a prepost design it is impossible to 

Definition
counterbalance order of treatments. 


Term
A researcher is examining motor skill development by observing children at 18 months old, 24 months old, and 30 months old. If the researcher uses a longitudinal design and obtains 20 scores for each age, how many children participated in the entire study? 

Definition


Term
What is the correct description for a research study comparing problem solving ability for girls versus boys under three different levels of temperature? 

Definition


Term
In a 2 x 3 betweensubjects factorial experiment, there are _____ groups of participants 

Definition


Term
What three outcomes are possible from a 2´2 factorial design? 

Definition
one main effect no main effects one interaction 


Term
A Pearson correlation of r = +0.25 indicates that a graph of the data would show 

Definition
points widely scattered around a line that slopes up to the right 


Term
A researcher reports a positive relationship between sugar consumption and activity level for a group of 8yearold children. However, the researcher cannot be sure whether the extra sugar is causing the children to be more active or whether the extra activity is causing the children to eat more sugar. This is an example of 

Definition
the directionality problem 


Term
The _______ method for quantifying observations involves counting the number of times a behavior occurs. 

Definition


Term
Rosenham’s research investigating the experiences of mental patients and patientstaff interactions in psychiatric hospitals is an example of 

Definition


Term
identify a potential problem with Internet surveys? 

Definition
It can be difficult to control or even know the composition of the sample. 


Term
A stable trend within a phase is defined as 

Definition
a set of observations that cluster around a line sloping up to the right or a line sloping down to the right when graphed. 


Term
Averaging over two or three consecutive observations is one method for dealing with 

Definition


Term
The advantage of an ABAB design versus a simple AB phasechange design 

Definition
the ABAB design reduces the probability that the result is just chance or coincidence 


Term
What outcome is likely to occur for a hypothesis test evaluating a treatment that has a very large and robust effect? 

Definition
correctly rejecting the null hypothesis 


Term
Without some correction, measures of interrater reliability 

Definition
tend to overestimate the true level of agreement between the raters. 


Term

Definition
the average squared distance from the mean 

