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China's weakness
for the final
International Studies
Undergraduate 2

Additional International Studies Flashcards




Nine Power Treaty
US, Japan, France, Britain, Portugal, Italy, Netherlands, Belgium, China
China begins disintegrating politically
Transfer of US open door policy to international policy
Secure endorsement of major powers
Naval limitation agreement
legal multilateralization to keep China open
agree not to take advantage of China's weakness
Powers wouldn't use railways to make special econ spheres of influence
Japanese seizure of Manchuria - violated
Japan's 2 choices
multilateral solution/management (Japanese Navy) - premaced on 1902 Anglo-Japanese alliance, premaced on Open Door Policy

unilateralism - Japan works independently (begins seizure of Manchuria in 1931); 1931 begins unilateralism, unilateralism dealt in own fashion with Balance of Power
Japan starting to encroach unilaterally
1932-35 secure Manchukuo: step by step deeper influence in Manchuria
Japanese create buffer zone in Manchuria - exclude Japanese radicals
1936 - Greater East Asia co-prosperity sphere
- Japanese hegemony over East Asia
- road to collision with US
- Japan want emancipation of domination of white powers, defense against communism, want to unite with China concerning resources to make co-prosperity sphere
US and Japanese Relations
US acquire Guam and Philippines
Japan acquire German holdings in Pacific
intermingling of US and Japanese sea lines of commerce
intense navy rivalry (security dilemma - each side defense is threat to the other, escalating cycle of mutual prep for war)
End of WW1 China falling apart: America and Britain have de facto alliance - remain in management of Euro affairs, Amer unhappy that Br has alliance with Japan)
1st militarized confrontation with Japan
American annexation of Hawaii1898 (Guam and Philippines) - Japan threaten these holdings because take Germany's in Pacific
Asia for the Asians - Japan's motto because want America out of China and Pacific
Washington Conference of 1922
Demanded that Britain cut alliance with Japan (agreed)
Bismarck - dual alliance with Rus and A-H (alliance used as strategy to control/manipulate)
Understand happiness - should have kept Anglo-Japan alliance
Sino-Japanese Wars
1894-95 - relative roles of China and Japan in Korea
1937-45 - 8 year war of resistance
3 - 7's incident
July 7, 1937
Manchukuo fired upon
Main issues concerning Sino-Japanese relations before WW2
With war between the two: neither side decided to back down, decided to escalate what they thought to be a positive outcome
Marco Polo Bridge Incident
US had strict neutrality legislation in 20s and 30s
China goes to war with Japan after Pearl Harbor
The China Incident
Japan wanted to secure resources of S. China and isolate China
Convinced Pres Roosevelt there was dual threat to create new world order under Germany and Japan
Accelerate globalization of great powers
Japan objective - 1937
Sino-Japanese cooperation in construction of new world order of China and Japan
Great East Asia co-prosperity sphere (exclude white powers, economic, industrialize, defense)
Difference between Japan and Germany - Germany was based on genocide and Japan was based on liberation
Germany in relation to China
Major exporting power
1st to leave Treaty System
Relations with China on basis of equality (good market for civilian and military exports)
With Chang Kai-Shek in 1937: China had 1/2 dozen German trained armies, air force creation with Italy
But in April 1938: Hitler chose Japan
Chang Kai-Shek
Involving foreign powers (Germany, Italy, US, Soviet Union)
Stabilize currency and expand
Felt China would lose war with Japan - 1931-35 (still too weak)
Angered Japan because deny cooperation
"Policy of Progressive Retreat" - (grew unpopular, led to anti-fascist front, national sentiment in China - strong in 1935-36) - Anti-Japan
Soviet Union in relation to Sino-Japanese War
Cheerleader China in war vs Japan
- would facilitate China in war
enters war in Aug 1945
Anti-Japanese acts occur frequently (attacks, boycotts) - Chinese government doesn't enforce treaty rights
AWAKENING of public opinion - which creates 1936-37
Pre Modern Politics vs Modern Politics
Pre Modern - elite make decisions
Modern - participation of ordinary people in government
Chang Kai-Shek policy during Sino-Japanese War
Aim: foreign intervention and mediation
Precipitate Western intervention to demand Japan to want to make agreement to end war, want West for mediation purposes as well
BUT no one wanted to confront Japan
Timeline of Sino-Japanese War 3
1937: Battle of Shanghai - 3 months; Japan wins, Nanjing falls in December
1938: Japan seize major ports along South China coast
1939: Soviet-Germany non-aggression treaty: 2 sources of supply
America during Sino-Japanese War 3
Roosevelt retreats
Mode of isolationism
Soviet Communist Party
Issue a program that capitalism leads to a proletariat revolution
War was the root to proletariat revolution
Prepare for insurrection in context of war
from 1921-35: Chinese Communist Party followed lead of Moscow - Moscow selected and appointed leadership of Chinese commie party
Bolshevik influence in China
Hammer and sickle represented working class under leadership of Communist party
From Bolshevik perspective - industrial proletariat is key
When Chinese try to hold urban insurrections were very bloody - Moscow told them too which was bad
Mao Zedong
Minor leader of membership in commie party
War went to hometown and saw deep anger in peasantry
Would kill land lords because wanted land and wives - wives go to upper class instead
After defeat in urban insurrection, Mao take followers to mountainous regions in South Central China and start a small revolutionary government
1927-35: Mao in opposition with Communist party leaders
1st duty of commie party (ComIntern) is defend Soviet Union
Soviet influence on China at time of WW2
in 1930s: Soviet protection of China receded because of rise of Nazism in Germany, which reorients priorities of army and aggressive Japan in the East, Stalin is increasingly desperate and sees resistance in China
1935: Comintern reorients the line of the international communist movement to advocate an anti-Fascist front, everyone should try to counter fascism, even Chinese nationalists
Stalin wants big battles - wants Chinese to band together, fight big battles, and fight Japanese (want to use China to stop Japan)
Chinese Republic under Mao collapses, go up north to fight Japanese - known as Long March (this is when Mao convinces others that Communist China should be run under China, not the Soviet Union)
Chinese situation by Communists in China - not Moscow
Stalin sees people in China as peasants, not proletariat
They are not experienced and influenced by bourgeoisie
Stalin mainly concerned with limiting Japanese resistance
Mao doesn't say no because Soviet Union has the money and resources
Mao hopes that Soviet Union will go to war with Japan
China had huge population with internal problems
Soviet army was getting better and better
Finally: Japanese came in and occupied major cities of China and major transportation routes
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