Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Child Psychology Final
Final study guide flash cards
118
Psychology
Undergraduate 4
06/06/2010

Additional Psychology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

Sensory-Motor Stage 0-2

Definition

-          Child's thoughts are confined to actions, reflexes and sensory experiences. Differentiates self from object and other people. Seeks stimulation and prolongs interesting sights and experiences. Develops object permanence, imitate behaviors, imaginative play.

-          Later shows the beginning of symbolic thought.

Term

Substages of Sensory Motor (0-2)

1 of 5

Basic Reflex Activity (0-1)  

Definition
    Focuses only on objects directly in front of him
Term

Substages of Sensory Motor (0-2)

2 of 5

 

Primary Circular reactions  1-4  

Definition

   Begins to operate on objects with action schemes:

initially this occurs accidentally and then becomes less accidental: looks a long time at a place where an object disappeared but does not search visually or manually for the object.

Term

Substage of Sensory Motor (0-2)

3 of 5

Secondary Circular reactions  4-8  

Definition

Can operate objects and repeats actions toward objects; can visually anticipate where an object may be; searches for partially concealed objects.

Term

Substage of Sensory Motor (0-2)

4 of 5

 

Coordination of secondary circular reactions  8-12  

Definition

 Will search for completely hidden objects but has tendency to repeat old actions by searching where  objects were  previously hidden.

Term

Substage of Sensory Motor (0-2)

5 of 5

 

Tertiary circular reactions           12-18          

 

Definition

       Lots of trial and error experimantation with objects and how they move; searches for objects that have been concealed while she was watching but has difficulty if an object is displaced more than once.

Term
Assimilation
Definition
applying an existing schema to a new experience. Trying to apply what they already know. EXAMPLE: As babies are comforted with new objects they try to assimilate those objects to their looking-grasping-sucking schema.
Term
Accommodation
Definition

-          modifying an existing schema to fit a new experience. EXAMPLE: Instead of holding a ball in her hands she chooses her arms. Licking instead of sucking.

Term
Organization
Definition

-          combining simple mental structure into more complex systems. EXAMPLE: babies will suck on anything that touches their lips.

 

Term

Pre-Operational Stage 2-7

Definition

The ability to use symbols facilitates the learning of language; this stage is also marked by semi logical reasoning, egocentricity – in which the child sees the world from her own point of view --- and intuitive behavior, in which the child can solve problems using mental operations but cannot explain how she did so.

Term
Symbolic Functioning
Definition

the ability to use symbols such as words, images, and gestures to represent objects and events mentally.

Term
One of the preoperational child's major accomplishments
Definition

acquisition of language. Shows intuitive problem solving. Thinking is semi logical characterized by irreversibility, centration, egocentrism and animism. Thinks in terms of classes, sees relationships, grasps concept of conversation, numbers.

Term

The two substages Piaget divided the

 Pre-operational Stage (2-7) into are...

Definition

PRECONCEPTUAL and the INTUITIVE SUBSTAGE.

Term

Preconceptual Substage (2-4)

of

Pre-Operational Stage (2-7)

(plus limitation)

Definition

emergence of symbolic capabilities is evident in children's rapid development of language, their great interest in imaginative play, and their increasing use of deferred imitation.

-          Children are limited by animistic thinking. Which is the tendency to attribute lifelike characteristics to inanimate objects, and by egocentrism; a tendency to view things from one’s own perspective and have difficulty seeing things from another person’s perspective

Term

Intuitive Substage (4-7)

of

Pre-operational Stage (2-7)

 

Definition
the child can solve the problems, but cannot explain why she solved them in a particular way.
Term

3 Limitations of Pre-operational stage (2-7)

 

Definition

1.       Reversibility – the notion that logical operations can be changed back to their original state.

2.       Ends over means the child focuses on the end state rather than the means by which the end states were obtained.

3.       Centration – focusing on only one dimension of a problem

Term
Types of Conservation tasks
Definition

-          liquids, mass, volume, and area

Term
Concrete Operations (7-12)
Definition

-          Capable of logical reasoning ability is limited to physically real and present objects. Able to group concepts of the conservation of mass length, weight, and volume. Thinking is now characterized by reversibility, decentration, and the ability to take the role of another.  Able to organize objects into classifications, place objects into ordered series.

Term

Formal Operations (12+)

 

Definition

-          Child acquires flexibility in thinking as well as the capabilities for abstract thinking and mental hypothesis testing able to consider possible alternatives in complex reasoning and problem solving.

Term
Psychometrician
Definition

-          A psychologist who specializes n the construction and use of tests designed to measure psychological constructs such as intelligence and various personality characteristics.

Term
Standardization
Definition

-          The process by which test constructors ensure that testing procedures, instructions, and scoring are identical; or as nearly so as possible, on every testing occasion.

Term
Test Norms
Definition

-          Values, or sets of values, that describes the typical test performance of a specific group of people.

Term
Validity
Definition
The extent to which a test actually measures what it claims to measure
Term
Reliability
Definition
The degree to which a test yields consistent results over time or successive administration.
Term
Stanford - Binet test
Definition

-          The modern version of the first major intelligence test; emphasizes verbal and mathematical skills.

×          Devised in the early 1900s by Binet and Simon at the request of a Paris school system.

Term
Mental Age
Definition
An index of a child’s actual performance on an intelligence test as compared with his true age
Term
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
Definition

-          An index of the way a person performs on a standardized intelligence test relative to the way others her age perform.

-          Equation for obtaining it: IQ = MA/CA x 100

×          MA- Mental Age, CA- Chronological Age

Term

Two types of learning that are inherited

proposed by Jensen

Definition
Associative and Cognitive Learning
Term
Associative Learning
Definition

×          According to Jensen, lower-level learning tapped in test of such things as short-term memorization and recall, attention, rote learning, and simple associative sills. Also called Level I Learning

Term
Cognitive Learning
Definition

×          According to Jensen, higher-level learning tapped in test of such things as abstract thinking, symbolic processing, and the use of language in problem solving. Also called level II learning.

Term
Home Environment Effects on IQ
Definition

-          A supportive, warm family environment encourages a child to become self-reliant, to express her curiosity, and to explore has been liked to higher intellectual functioning.

-          Parents who are emotionally and verbally responsive to their children, who provide appropriate play and reading materials, who encourage their children’s interest in and efforts at learning, who provide their children with a variety of learning experiences tend to have children with higher IQ scores.

Term

Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

 

Definition

-          A theory that proposes three major components of intelligent behavior: information processing skills, experience in a particular situation, the ability to adapt to demands of the context

Term
Information Processing Skills
Definition
required to encode, combine, and compare varying kinds of information.
Term
Experience with a particular situation
Definition

×          considers how much exposure and practice an individual has had with a particular intellectual task and how readily and individual can automatize information over repeated experiences with a task.

Term
The ability to adapt to the demands of a context
Definition

×          people must adapt to the requirements of a situation and to select and shape other situations to meet their own needs. Thus, one dimension on which the intelligence of a particular behavior can be measure is its suitability and effectiveness in a particular context.

Term
Successful Intelligence
Definition

×          requires three abilities:

-          Analytical – include those taught and tested in most schools and colleges, such as reasoning about the best answer to a test question.

-           Creative – are involved in devising new ways of addressing issues and concerns.

-          Practical – used in peoples everyday worlds of work, family life, and social and professional interactions.

Term
Tacit Knowledge
Definition
implicit knowledge that is shared by many people and that guides behavior.
Term
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Definition

proposes eight distinct types of intelligence.

1.Linguistic

 

2. Logical-mathematical

3. Spatial

4. Musical

5. Bodily-kinesthetic

6. Intrapersonal

7. Interpersonal

8. Naturalist

 

 

 

Term

Linguistic

Gardner's type of Intelligence

1 of 8

Definition

– Sensitivity to word meaning; mastery of syntax; appreciation of the ways language can be used.

×          Poet, Teacher

Term

Logical-mathematical

Gardner's Type of Intelligence

2 of 8 

Definition
– understanding of objects, symbols, the actions that can be performed on them and the interrelations among these actions; ability to operate in the abstract and to identify problems and seek explanations.
Term

Spatial

Gardner's Type of Intelligence

3 of 8

Definition

accurate perception of visual world; ability to transform perceptions and mentally re-create visual experience; sensitivity to tension, balance, and composition; ability to detect similar patterns.

×          Artist, engineer, chess player

Term

Musical

Gardner's Type of Intelligence

4 of 8

Definition

Sensitivity to musical tones and phrases; ability to combine tones and phrases into larger rhythms and structures; awareness of music’s emotional aspects

×          Musician, composer

Term

Bodily-kinesthetic

Gardner's Type of Intelligence

5 of 8

Definition

skilled and graceful use of one’s body for expressive or goal-directed purposes; ability to handle objects skillfully.

×          Dancer, athlete, actor

 

Term

Intrapersonal

Gardner's type of Intelligence

6 of 8

Definition

Ability to notice and distinguish among others’ moods, temperaments, motives and intentions; ability to act on this knowledge.

×          Novelist, psychotherapist, actor

Term

Interpersonal

Gardner's Type of Intelligence

7 of 8

Definition

ability to notice and distinguish among others’ moods, temperaments, motives, and intensions; ability to act on this knowledge.

×          Political or religious leader, parent, teacher, psychotherapist

Term

Naturalist

Gardner's Type of Intelligence

8 of 8 

Definition

insight into the natural world; ability to identify different life forms and species and the relationships between them.

×          Biologist, naturalist

Term
Culture-fair test
Definition
a test that attempts to minimize cultural biases in content that might influence the test taker’s responses.
Term
Socialization
Definition

-          the process by which parents and others ensure that a child’s standards of behavior, attitudes, skills and motive conform closely to those deemed appropriate to her role in society.

Term
Parents and Socialization on Children
Definition

-          Not only to parents have socialization effects on children, children also help parents with their own socialization.

-          Reinforcements when they explain acceptable standards of behavior and then praise or discipline their children according to whether they conform to or violate these rules.

-          Parents also teach their children by modeling behavior.

Term

Two Primary Dimensions of Behavior

 reflected by Parenting patterns and styles

Definition
Emotionality and Control
Term

Emotionality

Dimension of Behavior

Definition

×          Parents may be warm, responsive, and child centered in their approach to their children, or they may be rejecting, unresponsive, and essentially uninvolved with their children and more focused on their own needs and wishes.

×          A parent who is warm and loving has a child that is likely to want to maintain the parent’s approval and to be distressed at any prospect of losing the parent’s love.

×          A parent who is cold and rejecting, however, the threat of withdrawal of love in unlikely to be an effective mechanism of socialization.

Term

Control

Dimension of Behavior

Definition

×          Parents may be very demanding of their children, restricting their behavior, or they may be permissive and undemanding, pretty much allowing the child to do as he wishes.

×          Rather than issue unexplained ultimatums, parents use suggestions and reasoning and present possible alternative courses of action, the child is more likely to comply with their wishes.

Term
Effective Methods of Control
Definition

×          If parents are consistent in their discipline, use the minimum amount of pressure necessary to change the child’s behavior, and encourage the child to view his compliance as self-initiated, children are more likely to cooperate and to adopt or internalize their parents’ standards.

Term
Ineffective Methods of Control
Definition

×          If parents use power assertive methods of discipline that rely heavily on the superior power of the parent or are demeaning to the child such as physical punishment, threats, or humiliation, children may come to view themselves as helpless or unworthy.

Term
Baumrind's Parenting Styles
Definition

Authoritative

Authoritarian

Permissive

Uninvolved

 

Term
Authoritative Parenting Style
Definition
Parenting that is warm, responsive, and involved yet un-intrusive, and in which parents set reasonable limits and expect appropriately mature behavior from their children.
Term
Authoritative Parent Characteristics
Definition

×          Warm, involved, responsive, shows pleasure and support of child’s constructive behavior; considers child’s wishes and solicits her opinions; offers alternatives.

×          Sets standards, communicates them clearly, and enforces them firmly; does not yield to child’s coercion; shows displeasure at bad behavior; confronts disobedient children

×          Expects mature, independent, age-appropriate behavior

×          Plans cultural events and joint activities.

Term
Authoritative Children's Characteristics
Definition

×          Energetic-Friendly Child

×          Cheerful

×          Self-controlled and self-reliant

×          Purposive, achievement oriented

×          Shows interest and curiosity in novel situations

×          Copes well with stress

Term
Authoritarian Parenting Style
Definition

-          Parenting that is harsh, unresponsive, and rigid, and in which parents tend to use power-assertive methods of control.

Term
Authoritarian Parent Characteristics
Definition

×          Shows little warmth or positive involvement

×          Does not solicit or consider child’s desires or opinions

×          Enforces rules rigidly but doesn’t explain them clearly

×          Shows anger and displeasure; confronts child regarding bad behavior and uses harsh, punitive discipline

×          Views child as dominated by antisocial impulses.

Term
Authoritarian Child Characteristics
Definition

×          Moody, unhappy, aimless

×          Fearful, apprehensive, easily annoyed

×          Passively hostile and deceitful

×          Vulnerable to stress.

Term
Permissive Parenting Style
Definition
Parenting that is lax and in which parents exercise inconsistent discipline and encourage children to express their impulses freely.
Term
Permissive Parent Characteristics
Definition

×          Moderately warm

×          Glorifies free expression of impulses and desires

×          Does not communicate rules clearly or enforce them; ignores or accepts bad behavior; disciplines inconsistently; yields to coercion and whining; hides impatience and anger.

×          Makes few demands for mature, independent behavior.

Term
Permissive Child Characteristics
Definition

×          Impulsive-Aggressive Child

×          Aggressive, domineering, resistant, noncompliant

×          Quick to anger but fast to recover cheerful mood

×          Lacks self-control and displays little self reliance

Term
Uninvolved Parenting Style
Definition

-          parenting that is indifferent and neglectful and in which parents focus on their own needs rather than their children’s needs.

Term
Uninvolved Parent Characteristics
Definition

×          Self- centered, generally unresponsive, neglectful

×          Pursues self-gratification at expense of child’s welfare

×          Tries to minimize costs (time, effort) of interaction with child

×          Fails to monitor child’s activity, whereabouts, companions

×          May be depressive, anxious, emotionally needy

×          Vulnerable to marital discord, divorce

Term
Uninvolved Child Characteristics
Definition

×          Neglected Child

×          Moody, insecurely attached, impulsive, aggressive, noncompliant, irresponsible

×          Low self-esteem, immature, alienated from family

×          Lacks skills for social and academic pursuits

×          Truancy, association with troubled peers, delinquency and arrest, precocious sexuality.

Term
Systems of Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems
Definition

Microsystem

Mesosystem

Exosystem

Macrosystem

Chronosystem

Term
Microsystem
Definition

-          the context in which children live and interact with the people and institutions closest to them, such as parents, peers and school.

Term
Mesosystem
Definition
the interrelations among the components of the Microsystems
Term
Exosystem
Definition

-          the collection of settings, such as a parent’s daily work, that impinge on child’s development but in which the child does not play a direct role.

Term
Macrosystem
Definition

-          the system that surrounds the Microsystems, mesosystem, and exosystem; represents the values, ideologies, and laws of the society or culture.

Term
Chronosystem
Definition

-          The time based dimension that can alter the operation of all other systems in Bronfendbrenner’s model, from Microsystems through macrosystem. 

Term

Principles of Family Systems Theory

Definition

  Marital System – both partners in a marriage or other form of a committed relationship, make up the marital system, the first and indeed the founding subsystem within the family system.

-          The Parent-Child System – Parents have to try to adapt their methods to each child’s temperament and needs and to the demands of the culture but it’s important to keep in mind that individual children may develop very differently within the same family.

Term

Divorce: 

processes and consequences

(short-term, long-term)

Definition

-          During the first year after a divorce, parents’ feelings of distress and unhappiness, troubled parent-child relationships, and children’s social and emotional adjustment actually get worse.

-          In the second year, many parents experience a dramatic improvement in their sense of personal well being, interpersonal functioning and family relations.

-          In the long run, children in well-functioning single-parent households are better adjusted than children in conflict-ridden nuclear families.

-          After divorce, children reciprocate by being demanding, noncompliant and aggressive or by whining and being overly dependent.

-          Depression is common, substance abuse and precocious sexual activity are found in both boys and girls in mother-headed one parent families.

Long Term

-          Lewis Terman study in 1920s found that children who experienced parental divorce during childhood were likely o die sooner than those who parents stayed married.  

Term
4 Types of Play
Definition

Solitary

Parrallel

Associative

Cooperative

Term

Type of Play:

Solitary

1 of 4

Definition

×          Children play by themselves and generally ignore other children who are near. About half of 2 years olds engage in this type of play

Term

Type of Play:

Parallel

2 of 4

Definition

×          – two children play in similar activities, often side by side, but do not engage one another. This type of play is common in 2-year-olds but diminishes by the time a child is 3 or 4 years old

Term

Type of Play:

Associative

3 of 4

Definition

×          Children play with other children but do not necessarily share the same goals or agendas. They share toys and materials, and they may even react to or comment on another child’s ongoing activities

-          However, they are still not fully engage with each other in a joint project. This type of play is commonly seen in 3 and 4-year-olds, less often in 2-year-olds.

Term

Type of Play:

Cooperative

4 of 4

Definition

×          At age 3 to 4, children begin to engage in this sophisticated type of play in which they cooperate, reciprocate, and share common goals. Some examples of cooperative play are building a sand castle, drawing a picture together, and playing a fantasy game in which characters are to interact with each other.

Term
Sociometric Technique
Definition

-          A procedure for determining children’s status within their peer group. Each child in the group either nominates others who she likes best and least or rates each child in the group for desirability as a companion.

Term

 7 Types of Sociometric Status

 

Definition

Popular children

Average children 

Neglected children         

Controversial children

Rejected children

 Aggressive-rejected children

Nonaggressive rejected children

Term
Popular Children
Definition

-          Children who are liked by many peers and disliked by very few.

Term
Average Children
Definition

-          Children who have some friends but who are not as well liked as popular children

Term
Neglected Children
Definition

-          children who are often socially isolated and, although they are not necessarily disliked by others, have few friends.

Term
Controversial Children
Definition

children who are liked by many peers but also disliked by many

Term
Rejected Children
Definition

-          children who are disliked by many peers and liked by very few

Term
Aggressive-Rejected Children
Definition

-          Rejected children who have low self-control, are highly aggressive, and exhibit behavior problems

Term
Nonaggressive-Rejected Children
Definition

-   rejected children who tend to be anxious, withdrawn and socially unskilled.

Term
Clique
Definition

-         a voluntary group formed on the basis of friendship

×          By the time children are 11, most of their interaction with peers is in the context of the clique.

×          Membership in cliques enhances children’s psychological well-being and their ability to cope with stress, just as social acceptance and friendship are buffers against loneliness.

Term
Crowd
Definition

-          a collection of people whom others have stereotyped on the basis of their perceived shared attitudes or activities; for example, poplars or nerds.

×          Crowd affiliation is assigned by consensus of the peer group.

×          The salience of crowds probably peaks in ninth or tenth grade and decreases throughout high school.

×          Crowds are not always beneficial to participants. For example, gang members.

Term
Friendship
Definition

-         a reciprocal commitment between two people who see themselves more or less as equals.

Term

3 Expectations Children Have

For Friends

Definition

1. Reward-cost stage (Grades 2-3): Children expect friends to offer help, share common activities, provide stimulating ideas, and are able to join in organized play, offer judgments, be physically nearby and be demographically similar to them.

2. Normative stage (Grades 4-5): Children now expect friends to accept and admire them, to bring loyalty and commitment to a friendship, and to express similar values and attitudes towards rules and sanctions.

3. Empathetic Stage (Grades 6-7):  Children begin to expect genuineness and the potential for intimacy in their friends. They expect friends to understand them and to be willing to engage in self-disclosure. At this stage, kids may enter into “chumship”, the unique kind of intimacy described by Sullivan (1953)

Term
Relationship
Definition

-          a continuing succession of interactions between two people that are affected by their shared, past interactions and that also affect their future interactions.

Term
Gottman's Social Process of Friendship Formation
Definition

-          Communication clarity and connectedness – request for message clarification followed by appropriate clarification of the message

-          Information exchange – Asking question and eliciting relevant information

-          Establishing common ground – finding something to do together and/or exploring partners’ similarities and differences

-          Positive reciprocity – One partner responds to the other’s positive behavior or extends or lengthens a positive exchange; usually involves joking, gossip, or fantasy.

-          Conflict resolution – The extent to which play partners resolve disputes and disagreements successfully.

Term

School and Motivation

Mastery vs. Helplessness

Definition

Children who see themselves as helpless tend to give up easily or show deterioration when working on hard problems.

In contrast, mastery-oriented children use failure feedback to maintain or improve their performance.

Term
Children's theories about intelligence
Definition

Helpless children may hold an entity view of intelligence, whereas mastery-oriented children may hold an incremental view.

Term
Entity
Definition
intelligence is fixed
Term
Incremental
Definition
intelligence is malleable
Term
Achievement Motivation
Definition

Is when a person’s tendency to strive for successful performance, to evaluate her performance against standards of excellence, and to feel pleasure at having performed successfully. The emotions they associate with learning tasks, the way they view themselves and their abilities, and their responses to success and failure.

Term
Memory Strategies
Definition
Conscious cognitive or behavioral activities used to enhance mental performance. Strategies can be applied at all levels of the information processing system. The main purpose of a strategy is to make it easier for a child to solve a problem.
Term

4 Different Memory Strategies

with definition

Definition

1.      Selective attention – A strategy in which one focuses on some features of the environment and ignores others.

2.      Rehearsal – a memory strategy in which one repeats a number of times the information one wants to remember, either mentally or orally.

3.      Organization – a memory strategy that involves putting together in some organized form the information to be remembered.

4.      Elaboration – a memory strategy in which one adds to information to make it more meaningful and thus easier to remember.

Term
Working Memory
Definition

The mental processing unit in which information may be stored temporarily; the “work space” of the mind, where a decision must be made to discard information, work on it at present, or transfer it to permanent storage in long term memory.

 

Term
Knowledge base, experts and novices
Definition

A child’s familiarity with the domain or type of problem he is trying to solve plays a major role in his ability to process information and solve problems. A child’s expertise in a certain domain can enhance cognitive processing in children who are in a familiar domain. However this expertise does not cross over into other areas that they are unfamiliar with. It appears that when children have expertise in a domain, they function at a more advanced level in this domain than they do when they are thinking of problems outside that domain.

 

Term

Metamemory

and

what it includes

Definition

Refers to the learners' awareness of and knowledge about their own memory systems and strategies for using their memories effectively. Metamemory includes (a) awareness of different memory strategies, (b) knowledge of which strategy to use for a particular memory task, and (c) knowledge of how to use a given memory strategy most effectively.

Term
Candy Sellers in Brazil
Definition
The young vendors solved the commercial problems mentally when adding, and subtracting, but resorted to pencil and paper when the same mathematical problems were presented to them in the form of an academic exercise. Most striking was the difference in mathematical strategies that the children used in solving the same problems.
Term
Scaffolding
Definition
An instructional process in which the more knowledgeable partner adjusts the amount and type of support he offers to the child to fit with the child’s learning needs over the course of the interaction.
Term
The goal of scaffolding
Definition

The goal is to reduce the amount of support as the child becomes more skilled.

Term
Zone of Proximal Development
Definition

The region of sensitivity for learning characterized by the difference between the developmental level of which a child is capable when working alone and the level she is capable of reaching with the aid of a more skilled partner.[image]

1.      represents a way of understanding how children’s intellectual development may occur through the social interaction with more skilled partners.

2.      It represents an alternative approach to the assessment of intelligence. Examines the child’s intellectual potential under optimal conditions. Condition’s that are tailored to the child’s specific learning needs and build on the child’s present capabilities.

Term
Piaget's finding on Perspective
Definition

. Piaget’s classic test which used a tabletop to represent three mountains showed that young people could understand the perspective of others when:

1.      When it looks more realistic.

2.      When children are allowed to rotate or manipulate.

3.      When the reason for taking another’s perspective is made more meaningful or sensible to children.

Term
Different Stages of Perspective
Definition

Stage 0: Egocentric Perspective

Stage 1: Differentiated Perspective

Stage 2: Reciprocal Perspective

Stage 3: Mutual Perspective

Stage 4: Societal or Indepth Perspective

Term
Stage 0: Egocentric Perspective
Definition

The child does not distinguish his own perspective from that of others nor recognize that another person may interpret experiences differently.

Term
Stage 1: Differential Perspective
Definition

The child realizes that she and others may have either the same or a different perspective. Although she is concerned with the uniqueness of each person’s cognitions, she can’t judge accurately what the other person’s perspective may be.

 

Term
Stage 2: Reciprocal Perspective
Definition

Because the child can see himself from another’s perspective and knows the other person can do the same, he can anticipate and consider another’s thoughts and feelings.

Term
Stage 3: Mutual Perspective
Definition

Now the child can view her own perspective, a peer’s perspective, and their shared, or mutual perspective, from the viewpoint of a third person. For example, she can think of how a parent, teacher, or other peer might view both her and her friend’s perspective as well as their mutual perspective.

Term
Stage 4: Societal or Depth Perspective
Definition

Children (and adults) can see networks of perspectives, such as the societal, Republican, or African-American point of view. People understand that these varying perspectives not only exist in awareness but involve deeper, perhaps unconscious representations, such as feeling and values.

Supporting users have an ad free experience!