Term
How do you calculate bond order? 

Definition
(# of bonding electrons  # of antibonding electrons)/2 


Term

Definition
species with unpaired electrons are weakly attracted to a magnetic field. 


Term

Definition
species with paired electrons are repelled out of a magnetic field. 


Term
Why is the hybridization diagram different for B, N, and C? 

Definition
electrons in the σ2s MO will repel those going into the π2p and so make the, higher in energy than we previously expected 


Term
Atomic orbitals of _____ electronegative elements are _______ in energy. 

Definition


Term
Atomic orbitals of the highest electronegative element will dominate the character of the_______ molecular orbital 

Definition


Term
Atomic orbitals of the lowest electronegative element will dominate the character of the_______ molecular orbital 

Definition


Term
What do you do with nonbonding electrons? 

Definition


Term
What are the properties of gases? 

Definition
1. Expand to fill available volume 2. Compressable 3. Volume and pressure vary greatly with temperature 


Term
To directly measure pressure, you would use a ______. 

Definition


Term
To indirectly measure pressure, you would use a ______. 

Definition


Term

Definition


Term
What is the implication of Boyle's Law? 

Definition
Pressure is inversely related to volume 


Term

Definition


Term
What is the implication of Charles' Law? 

Definition
Volume is proportional to temperature in kelvin 


Term

Definition
Standard Temperature and Pressure. T=0 degrees C or 273.15K P= 1 atm or 101.3 kPa 


Term
What is the Combined Gas Law? 

Definition


Term

Definition
V1/n1=V2/n2
At the same temperature and pressure, two equal volumes of all gases have the same number of molecules. So, the number of molecules is proportional to volume. 


Term

Definition


Term
What is standard molar volume? 

Definition
The volume of 1 mole of an ideal gas at STP Standard Vm=22.414L/mol 


Term
What is the Ideal Gas Equation? 

Definition


Term
What is the universal gas constant? 

Definition


Term
What is Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures? 

Definition
For a sample of several gases in a container, each gas exerts pressure as if none of the other gases were present. 


Term
What is partial pressure? 

Definition
The pressure exerted by a gas in a mixture of gases 


Term
How do I find the total pressure of a container of mixed gases? 

Definition


Term
What is another way to write out Dalton's Law? 

Definition
By using a molar fraction, Xa=(# of moles of a/total # of moles), we can rewrite the equation to Pa=Xa*Ptotal 


Term
What is Kinetic Molecular Theory? 

Definition
A way of modeling the behavior of ideal gases: 1.Gases are very small molecules that are spaced very far apart 2.These molecules are in constant, random, straightline motion until they collide with one another or the or the vessel wall 3. Any collision is perfectly elastic, no energy is gained or lost 4. In between collisions, the molecules do not interact with one another and travel at constant speeds. (Individuals travel at different speeds) 


Term

Definition
Energy possessed due to motion. KE=(1/2)mv^2 


Term
What is the equation for Kinetic Energy of a mole of particles? 

Definition
KEmolar=Na*(1/2)mV(rms)^2 OR KE=(3RT)/2 


Term
What does Kinetic Molecular Theory have to do with temperature? 

Definition
Absolute temperature is directly proportional to the mean KE of gas molecules 


Term
What expression would I use to find average velocity of the particles? 

Definition
v(rms)=(3RT/2)^(1/2) When M=molar mass in kg, R=8.314J/mol*K 


Term

Definition


Term

Definition
The escape of gases through a tiny hole 


Term
What does the rate of both diffusion and effusion depend on? 

Definition
The average speed of the gas particles 


Term
At the same temperature, on average, _____ molar mass gas particles move faster. 

Definition


Term
What is Graham's Law of Diffusion and Effusion of Gases? (1) 

Definition
The ratio between the effusion or diffusion of two different gases is inversely proportional to the square root ratio of their molecular weights: (R1/R2)=(M1/M2)^(1/2) Note that R=Amount (of gas)/time (t) to effuse or diffuse 


Term
What is Graham's Law of Diffusion and Effusion of Gases? (2) 

Definition
The ratio between the effusion or diffusion of the same gas at two different temperatures is directly proportional to the square root ratio of their temperatures: (R1/R2)=(T1/T2)^(1/2) Note that R=Amount (of gas)/time (t) to effuse or diffuse 


Term
What are the limitations of Kinetic Molecular Theory? 

Definition
Gases do in fact interact when they get close to one another (ex jogger passing pretty lady slows down, as long as he's close enough to get a good look) 


Term
What is Van der Waal's equation? 

Definition
(P+(n^2*a)/V^2)*(Vnb)=nRT Where: a=measurement of the strength of attractive forces between molecules (more polar molecules=larger a values) b=related to the size of the gas molecules P=measured pressure V=volume of vessel 


Term
What is the first term of Van der Waal's equation? 

Definition
At low temp, KE is small: interactions are significant slows particles so pressure is reduced on vessel walls and thus measured P will be lower than predicted by ideal gas equation 


Term
What is the second term of Van der Waal's equation? 

Definition
At high pressure, volume is small: volume of particles is significant volume available to gas is lower than volume of vessel. 


Term
What happens in Van der Waal's equation at a low pressure and high temperature? 

Definition


Term
Do polar or non polar gases deviate the most from ideal gas laws? Why? 

Definition
Polar, because they have larger a and b terms 


Term
Under what conditions do ideal gas laws work fairly well? 

Definition


Term
What hybridization bonds make up a single bond? 

Definition


Term
What hybridization bonds make up a double bond? 

Definition
one sigma and one pi bond 


Term
What hybridization bonds make up a triple bond? 

Definition
one sigma bond and two pi bonds 


Term
How are sigma bonds formed? 

Definition
By the overlapping of pair of atomic orbitals 


Term

Definition
By two unpaired electrons forming a hybridization bond 


Term
What are homonuclear diatomics? 

Definition
Molecules created by the bonding of two of the same atoms 


Term
As bond order increases, it can be assumed that the bonds are_______, have ______ bond energy, and ______ bond length. 

Definition
stronger, higher, shorter 


Term
The MO diagram is skewed for _____nuclear diatmoics 

Definition


Term
In a MO diagram of a heteronuclear diatomics, the atomic energies of the ______ electronegative element are lower than the corresponding ones of the other element. 

Definition


Term
How do lop sided MO diagrams affect the MO's of heteronuclear diatomics? 

Definition
the antibonding orbitals 'look' more like the atomic orbitals of the less electronegative element. the bonding orbitals 'look' more like the atomic orbitals of the more electronegative element. 


Term
If given the heteronuclear diatomic, NO, which MO diagram would you use? 

Definition


Term
What are 'next door' diatomics and how do we handle them? 

Definition
CN, OF, etc. are examples of these. We handle them by pretending they are homonuclear diatomics and draw the relevent diagrams and answer questions as above for homonuclear diatomics. 


Term
What should you remember about stoichiometric coefficients? 

Definition


Term
What should you do with any chemical equation? 

Definition
Check that it's balanced! 


Term
What is the MaxwellBoltzmann Distribution? 

Definition
Measures the distributions of speeds as absolute temperature increases. Shows that for two gases at the same temperature, the heavier of the two has a narrower hump. Overall, shows that average KE of gas molecules is directly proportional to absolute temperature. 

