# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Chapter II Terms
Vocabulary and terms on Chaper II of Elementary Statistics
32
Mathematics
10/21/2010

Term
 Raw Data
Definition
 Data in its original form.
Term
 Class
Definition
 A raw data value that is placed in a quantitative or a qualitative category.
Term
 Frequency
Definition
 The number of data values contained in a specific class.
Term
 Frequency Distribution
Definition
 The organization of raw data in table form using classes and frequencies.
Term
 Categorical frequency distribution
Definition
 Used for data that can be placed in specific categories such as nominal- or ordinal-level data
Term
 Relative Frequency
Definition
 The decimal equilateral of a percent.
Term
 Grouped frequency distribution
Definition
 Data that is grouped into classes that are more than one unit in width.
Term
 Lower class limit
Definition
 The smallest data value that can be included in the class.
Term
 Upper class limit
Definition
 The largest data value that can be represented in a class.
Term
 Class boundaries
Definition
 Numbers that are used to separate the classes so that there are no gaps in the frequency distribution.
Term
 Class width
Definition
 Found by subtracting the lower (or upper) class limit of one class from the lower (or upper) class limit of the next class.
Term
 Class midpoint
Definition
 Is obtained by adding the lower and upper boundaries and dividing by two.
Term
 Mutually exclusive classes
Definition
 Classes that have none overlapping class limits so that the data cannot be placed into two classes.
Term
 Open-ended Distribution
Definition
 A frequency distribution with an open-ended class.
Term
 Cumulative frequency distribution
Definition
 A distribution that shows the number of data values less than or equal to a specific value (usually an upper boundary).
Term
 Ungrouped frequency distribution
Definition
 A frequency distribution that can be constructed using single data values for each class.
Term
 Histogram
Definition
 A graph that displays the data by using contiguous vertical bars of various heights to represent the frequencies of the classes.
Term
 Frequency polygon
Definition
 A graph that displays the data by using lines that connect points plotted for the frequencies at the midpoint of the classes.
Term
 Ogive
Definition
 A graph that represents the cumulative frequencies for the classes in a frequency distribution.
Term
 Relative frequency graph
Definition
 A graph where the distributions are using proportions as opposed to raw data.
Term
 Bell-shaped distribution
Definition
 Has a single peak that tapers off at either end. It is approximately symmetric.
Term
 Uniform distribution
Definition
 Flat or rectangular.
Term
 J-Shaped distribution
Definition
 Few data values on the left side and increases as it moves to the right.   A reverse shaped J-distribution is the opposite.
Term
 Bar graph
Definition
 Represents the data by using vertical or horizontal bars whose height or lengths represent the frequencies of the data.
Term
 Pareto Chart
Definition
 Used to represent a frequency distribution for a categorical variable and the frequencies are displayed by the heights of vertical bars which are arranged in order from highest to lowest.
Term
 Time series graph
Definition
 Represents data that occur over a specific period of time.
Term
 Pie graph
Definition
 A circle that is divided into sections or wedges according to a percentage of frequencies in each category of the distribution.
Term
 Stem and leaf plot
Definition
 A data plot that uses part of the data value as a stem and part of the data value as the leaf to form groups or classes.
Term
 Scatter plot
Definition
 A graph of order pairs of data values that is used to determine if a relationship exists between the two variables.
Term
 Positive linear relationship
Definition
 When the points fall approximately in an ascending straight line and both the x and y values increase at the same time.
Term
 Negative linear relationship
Definition
 When the points fall approximately in a descending straight line from left to right.
Term
 Nonlinear relationship
Definition
 When the points fall in a curved line. No relationship exists when there is no discernible pattern of the points.
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