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Chapter 9
Strategies for Creating an Effective Classroom Environment
34
Education
Graduate
10/17/2013

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Term
Classroom Management
Definition
Establishment and maintenance of a classroom environment conducive to learning and achievement.
Term
Classroom Climate (Psychological Environment)
Definition
Overall psychological atmosphere of the classroom.
Term
Authoritative Parents
Definition
  • Provide a loving & supportive environment
  • Hold high expectations and standards for children's behavior
  • Explain why some behaviors are acceptable and others are not
  • Consistently enforce rules for behavior
  • Include children in decision making
  • Provide age-appropriate opportunities for independence
Term
Preventive Strategies
Definition
Those designed to establish a productive learning environment right from the start
Term
Actual Physical Setup of the Classroom
Definition
The arrangement of tables and chairs, the availability of tools and resources (painting supplies, computers, etc.), the use of bulletin boards to present information and engage students' interest, and so on.
Term
Need for Relatedness
Definition
Human beings fundamental need to feel socially connected with others.
Term
Community of Learners
Definition
A classroom in which teacher and students consistently work together to help one another learn.
Term
Sense of Community
Definition
Shared belief that teacher and students have common goals, are mutually respectful and supportive, and all make important contributions to classroom learning.
Term
Belongingness
Definition
General sense that one is an important and valued member of the classroom.
Term
Strategies for keeping Students Productively Engaged
Definition
  • Have something specific for students to do each day, even on the first day of class.
  • Have materials organized and equipment set up before class.
  • Conduct activities that ensure¬†all students' involvement & participation.
  • Maintain a brisk pace throughout each lesson.
  • Ensure that students' comments are relevant & helpful but not excessively long-winded.
  • Spend only short periods of class time assisting individual students unless other students are able to work independently & productively in the meantime.
  • Ensure that students who finish an assigned task quickly have something else to do.
Term
Temperment
Definition
The extent to which a student is naturally inclined to be energetic, irritable, impulsive, and so on.
Term
Withitness
Definition
Classroom management strategy in which a teacher gives the impression of knowing what all students are doing at all times.
Term
Important Components of Coordination Among Faculty Members
Definition
  • Communicate & collaborate regularly with other classroom teachers and with specialists.
  • Form common goals regarding what students should learn and achieve.
  • Work together to identify and overcome obstacles to students' academic achievement.
  • Establish a shared set of strategies for encouraging productive student behaviors.
  • Make a group commitment to promote equality and multicultural sensitivity throughout the school community.
Term
Sense of School Community
Definition
Shared belief that all faculty and students within a school are working together to help everyone learn and succeed.
Term
Common Mechanisms for Enhancing School-Family Communication
Definition
  • Parent-teacher conferences
  • Written Communication
  • Telephone Conversations
  • E-mail Messages
  • Class Websites
Term
Misbehavior
Definition
Action that disrupts learning and planned classroom activities, puts students' physical safety or psychological well-being in jeopardy, or violates basic moral standards.
Term
When is Ignoring Misbehavior Often Reasonable?
Definition
  • When the behavior is a rare occurrence & probably won't be repeated.
  • When the behavior is unlikely to spread to other students.
  • When the behavior is the result of unusual & temporary conditions.
  • When the behavior is typical for a particular age-group.
  • When the bahavior's natural consequence is unpleasant enough to deter a student from repeating it.
  • When the behavior isn't seriously affecting classroom learning.
Term
Cueing
Definition
Strategy of teachers letting students know, through a signal of one kind or another, that they're aware of the misbehavior and want it to cease. (Verbal & Non-Verbal)
Term
Strategies that Help Minimize the Likelihood of a Power Struggle
Definition
  • Speak in a calm, matter-of-fact manner, describing the problem as you see it.
  • Listen empathetically to what the student has to say, being openly accepting of the student's feelings and opinions.
  • Summarize what you think the student has told you, and seek clarification if necessary.
  • Describe the effects of the problem behavior, including your personal reactions to it.
  • Give the student a choice from among two or more acceptable options.
  • Try to identify a solution that enables the student to maintain credibility in the eyes of peers.
Term
Forms of Mild Punishment that are Often Effective in Reducing Undesirable Classroom Behaviors
Definition
  • Verbal Reprimands (Scolding)
  • Response Cost
  • Loigical Consequences
  • Time-Out
  • In-School Suspension
Term
Response Cost
Definition
Loss either of a previously earned reinforcer or of an opportunity to obtain reinforcement.
Term
Logical Consequence
Definition
Unpleasant consequence that follows naturally or logically from a student's misbehavior.
Term
Time-Out
Definition
Consequence for misbehavior in which a student is placed in a dull, boring situation with no opportunity for reinforcement or social interaction.
Term
In-School Suspension
Definition
Consequence for misbehavior in which a student is placed in a quiet, boring room within the school building, typically to do schoolwork under close adult supervision.
Term

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)

(aka. behavior therapy or contingency management)

Definition
Systematic application of stimulus-response principles to address a chronic behavior problem.
Term
Principles ABA Approaches are Based on
Definition
  • Some stimuli tend to elicit certain kinds of behaviors.
  • Learners are more likely to acquire behaviors that lead to desired consequences.
  • Learners tend to steer clear of behaviors that lead to unpleasant consequences.
Term

 

ABA Approaches

Definition
  • Indentify problem behaviors and desired behaviors in explicit terms.
  • Identify reinforcers, punishments, or both that are truly effective for the student.
  • Develop a specific intervention plan.
  • Modify the classroom environment to minimize conditions that might trigger inappropriate behaviors.
  • Collect data on the frequency of problem behaviors and desired behaviors both before and during the intervention.
  • Monitor the program's effectiveness by observing how various behaviors change over time, and modify the program if necessary.
  • Take steps to promote transfer of newly acquired behaviors.
  • Gradually phase out the intervention after the desired behaviors are acquired.
Term
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Definition
When cognitive and motivational factors affecting students' behavior are addressed.
Term
Functional Analysis
Definition
Examination of inappropriate behavior and its antecedents and consequences to determine one or more purposes (functions) that the behavior might serve for the learner.
Term
Positive Behavioral Support (PBS)
Definition
Systematic intervention that addresses chronic misbehaviors (1) identifying the purposes those behaviors might serve for a student and (2) providing more appropriate ways for a student to achieve the same ends.
Term
PBS Strategies
Definition
  • Teach behaviors that can serve the same purpose as inappropriate behaviors.
  • Modify the classroom environment to minimize conditions that might trigger inappropriate behaviors.
  • Establish a predictable daily routine as a way of minimizing anxiety and making the student feel more comfortable and secure.
  • Give the student opportunities to make choices.
  • Make changes in the curriculum, instruction, or both to maximize the likelihood of academic success.
  • Monitor the frequency of various behaviors to determine whether the intervention is working or, instead, requires modification.
Term
Three Level Approach to Preventing Aggression and Violence in Schools
Definition
  1. Create a Schoolwide Environment that Minimizes the Potential for Aggression and Violence
  2. Intervene Early for Students at Risk
  3. Provide Intensive Intervention for Students in Trouble
Term
Strategies in Creating a Peaceful, Nonviolent School Environment
Definition
  • Make a schoolwide commitment to supporting¬†all students' academic and social success.
  • Provide a challenging and engaging curriculum.
  • Form caring, trusting faculty-student relationships.
  • Insist on genuine and equal respect for people of diverse backgrounds, races, and ethnic groups.
  • Emphasize prosocial behaviors.
  • Establish schoolwide policies and practices that foster appropriate behavior.
  • Teach specific skills that students can use to intervene during bullying incidents.
  • Provide mechanisms through which students can communicate concerns about aggression and victimization openly and without fear of reprisal.
  • Involve students in school decision making.
  • Establish close working relationships with community agencies and families.
  • Openly discuss safety issues.
Term
Strategies Towards Suppressing Violent Gang Activities
Definition
  • Develop, communicate, and enforce clear-cut policies regarding potential threats to other students' safety.
  • Identify the specific nature and scope of gang activity in the student population.
  • Forbid clothing, jewelry, and behaviors that signify membership in a particular gang.
  • Actively mediate between-gang and within-gang disputes.
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