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Chapter 8
Learning and Decision Making
36
Management
Kindergarten
06/06/2010

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Term
Learning
Definition
relatively permanent changes in an employee's knowledge or skill gained through experience.
Term
Decision Making
Definition
Process of generating and choosing from alternatives to solve a problem.
Term
Expertise
Definition
The knowledge and skills that distinguish experts from novices and the less experienced. Expertise is a function of learning not necessarily of intelligence.
Term
Explicit Knowledge
Definition
information relatively easy to communicate (i.e. through trainning or in textbooks).
Term
Tacit Knowledge
Definition
information learned through experience. difficult to articulate to others.
Term
Schedules of Reinforcement
Definition
Interval- consequence after amount of time has passed.
Fixed- consequence after a number of behaviors occur. variable > fixed.
Term
Behavioral Modeling
Definition
attention, retention, production, reinforcement.
Term
Learning Orientation
Definition
building competence is more important that demonstrating competence.
Term
Performance-avoid Orientation
Definition
Focus on demonstrating competence so others will not think poorly of you.
Term
Performance-prove Orientation
Definition
focus on demonstrating competencse so others will think favorable on you.
Term
Programmed Decisions
Definition
decisions (task related) that are somewhat automatic because people's knowledge allows them to recognize and identify a situation as well as the course of action to take.
Term
Intuition
Definition
Emotionally charged judgements that arise through quick, nonconscious and holistic associations.
Term
Rational Decision Making Model
Definition
Step by step process of examing all alternative outcomes to find the optimal solution.
Term
Bounded Rationality
Definition
notion that decision makers siimply do not have the ability or resoureces to process all availbable info.
Term
Satisficing
Definition
when decision makers accept the first acceptable alternative.
Term
Selective Perceptions
Definition
tendency to see the environment only as it affects you and is aligned with your expectations.
Term
Projection Bias
Definition
assume people think, feel, act the same way that you do
Term
Perception
Definition
Process of selecting, organizing, storing, and organizing cues from the environment.
Term
Heuristics
Definition
Simple rules of thumb that allow us to make decisions more easily
Term
Crisis Situation
Definition
A change, whether sudden or evolving, that results in an urgent problem that must be addressed immediately.
Term
Contingencies of Reinforcement
Definition
Positive Reinforcement- a positive outcome follows a desired behavior.
Negative Reinforcement- an unwanted outcome is removed following a desired behavior.
Punishment- an unwanted outcome follows an unwanted behavior.
Extinction- occurs when there is the removal of a consequence following an unwanted behavior.
Term
Social Learning Theory
Definition
people in organizations have the ability to learn through the observation of others.
Term
Nonprogrammed Decision
Definition
a situation that is new, complex, and not recognized.
Term
Social Identity Theory
Definition
people identify themselves by the groups to which they belong and percieve and judge others by their group memberships.
Term
Stereotype
Definition
when assumptions are made about others on the basis of their membership in a social group.
Term
Availability Bias
Definition
the tendency for peope to base their judgments on info that is easier to recall
Term
Anchoring
Definition
the tendency to rely too heavily on one trait or piece of information when making decisions.
Term
Bandwagon effect
Definition
the tendency to do (or believe) things because many other ppl do (or believe) the same.
Term
Confirmation Bias
Definition
the tendency to search for or interpret info in a way that confirms ones preconceptions
Term
self-serving bias
Definition
when we attribute our own failures to external factors and our own successes to internal factors.
Term
Halo Effect
Definition
the tendency for a person's positive or negative traits to 'spill over' from one area of their personality to another in others' perceptions of them.
Term
Self-fulfilling prophecy
Definition
the tendency to engage in behaviors that elicit results that will confirm our beliefs.
Term
Escalation of commitment
Definition
the decision to cotinue to follow a failing course of action.
Term
Learning -----> Job performance
Definition
moderate, postive
Term
Learning------------> Org. Commitment
Definition
weak, positive
Term
Primacy effect
Definition
influenced most by the first info you are exposed to
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