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Chapter 8
Terms and definitions
47
Management
Undergraduate 3
03/04/2009

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Term
Learning
Definition
Reflects relatively permanent changes in an employee's knowledge or skill that result from experience.
Term
Decision making
Definition
Refers to the process of generating and choosing from a set of alternatives to solve a problem.
Term
Expertise
Definition
Knowledge and skills that distinguish experts from novices and less experience people.
Term
Explicit knowledge
Definition
kind of information you are likely to think about when you picture someone sitting down at a desk to learn.
Term
Tacit knowledge
Definition
What employees can typically learn only through experience.
Term
90%
Definition
% of knowledge contained in organizations that occurs in tacit form.
Term
Contingencies of reinforcement
Definition
Four specific consequences typically used by organizations to modify employee behavior.
Term
Positive reinforcement
Definition
Positive outcome follows a desired behavior.
Term
Negative reinforcement
Definition
Occurs when an unwanted outcome is removed following a desired behavior.
Term
Punishment
Definition
Occurs when an unwanted outcome follows an unwanted behavior.
Term
Extinction
Definition
Occurs when there is the removal of a consequence following an unwanted behavior.
Term
Schedules of reinforcement
Definition
Timing of when the contingencies are applied.
Term
Continuous Reinforcement
Definition
Simplest sched. of reinf. and happens when a specific conseq. follows each and every occurrence of a desired behaviour.
Term
Fixed interval schedule
Definition
The single most common form of reinforcement sched. Workers are rewarded after a certain amount of time, and the lengths of time b/w reinf. periods stays the same.
Term
Variable Interval sched.
Definition
Designed to reinf. behaviour at more random points in time.
Term
Fixed ratio schedules
Definition
Reinforce behaviours after a certain number of them have been exhibited.
Term
Variable ratio sched.
Definition
Reward people after a varying number of exhibited behaviors.
Term
Social learning theory
Definition
Argues that people in organizations have the ability to learn through the observation of others.
Term
Behavioral Modeling
Definition
When employees observe the actions of others, learn from what they observe, and then repeat the observed behavior.
Term
Learning orientation
Definition
Where building competence is deemed more important than demonstrating competence.
Term
Performance-prove Orientation
Definition
Focus on demonstrating their competence so that others can think favourably of them.
Term
Performance-avoid Orientation
Definition
Focus on demonstrating their competence so that others will not think poorly of them.
Term
Programmed decisions
Definition
Decisions that become somewhat automatic because a person's knowledge allows him to recognize and identify a situation and the course of action that needs to be taken.
Term
Intuition
Definition
Emotionally charged judgments that arise through quick, nonconscious, and holistic associations.
Term
Nonprogrammed decision
Definition
When a situation arises that is new, complex and not recognized it call for a...
Term
Rational decision-making model
Definition
Offers a step-by-step approach to making decisions that maximize outcomes by examining all available outcomes.
Term
Bounded rationality
Definition
Notion that decision makers simply do not have the ability or resources to process all available information and alternatives to make an optimal decision.
Term
Satisficing
Definition
Results when decision makers select the first acceptable alternative considered.
Term
Selective perception
Definition
Tendency for people to see their environment only as it affects them and as it is consistent with their expectations.
Term
Projection bias
Definition
The belief that others think, feel, and act the same way they do.
Term
Social identity theory
Definition
Holds that people identify themselves by the groups to which they belong and perceive and judge others by their group memberships.
Term
Stereotype
Definition
When assumptions are made about others on the basis of their membership in a social group.
Term
Heuristics
Definition
Simple, efficient, rules of thumb that allow us to make decisions more easily.
Term
Availability bias
Definition
Tendency for people to base their judgments on information that is easier to recall.
Term
Fundamental attribution error
Definition
Argues that people have a tendency to judge others' behaviors as due to internal factors.
Term
Self-serving bias
Definition
Occurs when we attribute our own failures to external factors and our own successes to internal factors.
Term
Concensus
Definition
Did others act the same way under similar situations?
Term
Distinctiveness
Definition
Does this person tend to act differently in other circumstances?
Term
Consistency
Definition
Does this person always do this when performing this task?
Term
Escalation of commitment
Definition
Refers to the decision to continue to follow a failing course of action.
Term
Moderate
Definition
Correlation between learning and job performance (task performance)
Term
Weak
Definition
Correlation between learning and organizational commitment (affective commitment)
Term
Training
Definition
Systematic effort by organizations to facilitate the learning of job-related knowledge and behavior.
Term
Knowledge transfer
Definition
Occurs between older more experienced workers and younger employees.
Term
Communities of practice
Definition
Groups of employees who work together and learn from one another by collaborating over an extended period of time.
Term
Transfer of training
Definition
occurs when the knowledge, skills, and behaviours used on the job are maintained by the learner once training ends and generalized to the workplace once the learner returns to the job.
Term
climate for transfer
Definition
An environment that can support the use of new skills.
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