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OB Chapter 6
Undergraduate 1

Additional Business Flashcards




LG1- Define the three key elements of motivation
Motivation: The processes that account for an individual's intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.
Intensity- concerned with how hard a person tries.
Direction-quality of the effort.
Persistence- how long one can maintain the effort.
LG2- Identify four early theories of motivation and evaluate their aplicability today. (Just name them)
Hierarchy of needs theory
Theory X and Theory Y
Two-factor theory
McClelland's theory of needs
LG2- Identify four early theories of motivation and evaluate their aplicability today.-Hierarchy of needs theory
By Maslow.
A hierarchy of five needs: physiological, safety, social, and self-actualization- in which, as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant.
Lower order needs: Needs that are satisfied externally, such as physiological and safety needs.
Higher-order needs: Needs that are satisfied internally, such as social, esteem and self-actualization needs.
Self actualization needs- the drive to become what a person is capable of becoming.
Today> ERG theory- A theory that posits three groups of core needs: existence, relatedness and growth.
LG2- Identify four early theories of motivation and evaluate their aplicability today- Theory X and Theory Y
Theory X- The assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility and must be coerced to perform.
Theory Y- The assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibilitz and can excercise self-direction
Today- no evidence to confirm either.
LG2- Identify four early theories of motivation and evaluate their aplicability today- Two factor theory
A theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfactio and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction. Als called motivation hygiene theory.
Hygiene factors: Factors-such as company policy and administration, supervision and salary- that, when adequate in a job, placate workers. When these factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied.
The theory is not well supported by literature, and there are criticisms.
LG2- Identify four early theories of motivation and evaluate their applicability today.- McClelland's theory of needs
A theory which states that achievement, power and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation.
Need for achievement- The drive to excel, to achieve in relationship to a set of standards, to strive to succeed.
Need for power: is the need to make others behave in a way in which they would not have behaved otherwise.
Need for affiliation: is the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships.
Supported by research, but not as much practical effect like the previous theories.
LG3- Apply the predictions of cognitive evaluation theory to intrinsic and extrinsic rewards.
Cognitive evaluation theory: theory which states that allocating extrinsic rewards for behaviour that had been previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation. (Individual feels a loss of control over his behaviour towards task, hence motivation to do it falls)(Verbal rewards increase intrinsic motivation, tangible rewards decrease it)
Self-concordance- The degree to which a person's reasons for pursuing a goal is consistent with the person's interests and values.
LG4- Compare and contrast goal setting theory and management by objectives.
Goal setting theory: A theory that says that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance. (motivate individuals)

Management by objective (MBO): A programme that encompasses specific goals, participatively set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress. (a more systematic way to use setting)(There are organizational, divisional, department and individual objectives.)
LG5- Contrast reinforcement theory and goal setting theory.
Self efficacy- An individual's belief that they are capable of performing a task.
Goal setting theory and self efficacy theory complement each other.
Reinforcement Theory- a theory that says behaviour is a function of its consequences(ignores the inner state of a person, and focuses on what happens when hey perform, not interested on what innitiates behaviour, or motivates it, rather controls it)
LG6- Demonstrate how organizational justice is a refinement of equity theory.
Equity theory- A theory whih says that individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities.
What is meant by equity or fairness?
In history: Distributive justice- perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals.
Now its Organizational Justice- An overall perception of what is fair in the workplace, composed of distributive, procedural and interactional justice.
oProcedural justice: the perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards
oInteractional justice: the perceived degree to which an individual is treated with dignity, concern and respect
LG6- Demonstrate how organizational justice is a refinement of equity theory.- How do employees perceive and react to inequity
4 referent comparisons:
-Self-Inside: experiences in a different position inside the employee’s organization
-Self-Outside: experiences in a position outside the employee’s organization
-Other-Inside: position of someone inside the organization
-Other-Outside: position of someone outside the organization
When inequity occurs, employees will choose one of six choices:
-Change their inputs
-Change their outcomes
-Distort perceptions of self
-Distort perceptions of others
-Choose a different referent
-Leave the field
LG7- Apply the key tenets of expectancy theory to motivating employees.
-Expectancy theory: a theory that says that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual
o1. Effort-performance relationship: the probability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance
o2. Performance-reward relationship: the degree to which the individual believes that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome
o3. Reward-personal goals relationship: the degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual’s personal goals or needs and the attractiveness of those potential rewards for the individual
LG8- Compare contemporary theories of motivation
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