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chapter 3
sociology: a down to earth approach
86
Sociology
Undergraduate 1
04/06/2011

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Term

social environment

 

Definition
the entire human environment, including direct contact with others 
Term
feral children 
Definition
children as-sumed to have been raised by animals, in the wilderness, iso-lated from humans
Term
“ The wild boy of Aveyron,”
Definition
French scientists took the child to a laboratory and studied him. Like the feral children in the earlier informal reports, this child, too, gave no indication of feeling the cold. Most startling, though, the boy would growl when he saw a small animal, pounce on it, and devour it uncooked. Even today, the sci-entists’ detailed reports make fascinating reading ( Itard 1962).
Term
Heredity or environment? How much influence does each have?
Definition
The question is not yet settled, but at this point it seems fair to conclude that the limits of certain physical and mental abilities are established by heredity ( such as ability at sports and aptitude for mathemat-ics), while attitudes are the result of the environment. Basic temperament, though, seems to be inherited. Al-though the answer is still fuzzy, we can put it this way: For some parts of life, the blueprint is drawn by hered-ity; but even here the environment can redraw those lines. For other parts, the individual is a blank slate, and it is up to the environment to determine what is writ-ten on that slate.
Term
 the key to human development.
Definition
language 
Term
Other than language, what else is required for a child to develop into what we consider a healthy, balanced, intelligent human being?
Definition
 stimulating social interaction, not the children’s brains.
Term
I From Genie’s pathetic story and from the research on institutionalized children, what can we learn?
Definition
we can conclude that the basic human traits of intelligence and the ability to establish close bonds with others depend on early interaction with other humans. In addi-tion, there seems to be a period prior to age 13 in which children must learn language and experience human bonding if they are to develop normal intelligence and the ability to be sociable and fol-low social norms.
Term
Who experiments with rhesus monkeys?
Definition
psychologists Harry and Margaret Harlow
Term
socialization 
Definition
the process by which people learn the charac-teristics of their group— the knowledge, skills, attitudes, val-ues, norms, and actions thought appropriate for them
Term
self 
Definition
the unique human capacity of being able to see our-selves “ from the outside”; the views we internalize of how others see us
Term
looking- glass self 
Definition
a term coined by Charles Horton Cooley to refer to the process by which our self develops through internalizing others’ reactions to us
Term
taking the role of the other 
Definition
putting oneself in someone else’s shoes; under-standing how someone else feels and thinks and thus antici-pating how that person will act
Term
significant other an 
Definition
individual who significantly influences someone else’s life
Term
generalized other 
Definition
the norms, values, attitudes, and ex-pectations of people “ in gen-eral”; the child’s ability to take the role of the generalized other is a significant step in the development of a self
Term
 a symbolic interaction-ist who taught at the University of Michigan, concluded that the self is part of how society makes us human. He said that our sense of self develops from interaction with others. To de-scribe the process by which this unique aspect of “ humanness” develops, Cooley ( 1902) coined the term looking- glass self.
Definition
Charles Horton Cooley ( 1864– 1929),
Term
The looking- glass self contains three elements: 
Definition

1. We imagine how we appear to those around us. For example, we may think that oth-ers perceive us as witty or dull.

2. We interpret others’ reactions. We come to conclusions about how others evaluate us. Do they like us for being witty? Do they dislike us for being dull? 3. We develop a self- concept. How we interpret others’ reactions to us frames our feel-ings and ideas about ourselves. A favorable reflection in this social mirror leads to a positive self- concept; a negative reflection leads to a negative self- concept.

Term
 the development of the self does not depend on 
Definition
accurate evaluations. Even if we grossly misinterpret how others think about us, those misjudgments become part of our self- concept. Note also that although the self- concept begins in childhood, its development is an ongoing, lifelong process. During our everyday lives, we monitor how others react to us. As we do so, we continually modify the self. The self, then, is never a finished product— it is always in process, even into our old age.
Term
George hebert Mead
Definition
Role taking
Term
How We Learn to Take the Role of the Other: Mead’s Three Stages
Definition

Stage 1: Imitation Children under age 3 No sense of self Imitate others

Stage 2: Play Ages 3 to 6 Play “ pretend” others ( princess, Spiderman, etc.)

Stage 3: Team Games After about age 6 or 7 Team games (“ organized play”) Learn to take multiple roles

Term
Mead also said there were two parts of the self, 
Definition
the “ I” and the “ me.” The “ I ” is the self as subject, the active, spontaneous, creative part of the self. In contrast, the “ me” is the self as object.
Term
The development of the mind— specifically, how we learn to reason— was studied in detail by 
Definition
Jean Piaget
Term
Piaget concluded that children do go through a natural process as they develop their ability to reason. This process has --- stages.
Definition
four
Term
development of reasoning stages
Definition

1. The sensorimotor stage ( from birth to about age 2)

2. The preoperational stage ( from about age 2 to age 7)

3. The concrete operational stage ( from the age of about 7 to 12)

4. The formal operational stage ( after the age of about 12)

Term
During this stage, our un-derstanding is limited to direct contact— sucking, touching, listening, looking. We aren’t able to “ think.” During the first part of this stage, we do not even know that our bodies are separate from the environment. Indeed, we have yet to discover that we have toes. Neither can we recognize cause and effect. That is, we do not know that our actions cause something to happen.
Definition
1. The sensorimotor stage ( from birth to about age 2) 
Term
During this stage, we develop the ability to use symbols. However, we do not yet un-derstand common concepts such as size, speed, or causation. Al-though we are learning to count, we do not really understand what numbers mean. Nor do we yet have the ability to take the role of the other. Piaget asked preoperational children to describe a clay model of a mountain range. They did just fine. But when he asked them to describe how the mountain range looked from where another child was sitting, they couldn’t do it. They could only repeat what they saw from their view.
Definition
2. The preoperational stage ( from about age 2 to age 7) 
Term
Our reasoning abilities are more developed, but they remain concrete. We can now understand num-bers, size, causation, and speed, and we are able to take the role of the other. We can even play team games. Unless we have concrete examples, however, we are unable to talk about concepts such as truth, honesty, or justice. We can explain why Jane’s answer was a lie, but we cannot describe what truth itself is.
Definition
the concrete operational stage ( from the age of about 7 to 12
Term
We now are capable of ab-stract thinking. We can talk about concepts, come to conclusions based on general principles, and use rules to solve abstract problems. During this stage, we are likely to become young philosophers ( Kagan 1984). If we were shown a photo of a slave during our concrete operational stage, we might have said, “ That’s wrong!” Now at the formal operational stage we are likely to add, “ If our county was founded on equality, how could anyone own slaves?”
Definition
4. The formal operational stage ( after the age of about 12) 
Term
id 
Definition
Freud’s term for our inborn basic drives
Term
founded psychoanalysis,
Definition
Freud
Term
psychoanalysis
Definition
, a technique for treating emotional problems through long- term exploration of the subconscious mind.
Term
 believed that personality consists of three elements.
Definition
Freud
Term
ego 
Definition
Freud’s term for a balanc-ing force between the id and the demands of society
Term
 Freud’s term for the conscience; the internalized norms and values of our social groups
Definition
superego
Term
Why Sociologists, however, object to the view that inborn and subconscious motivations are the primary reasons for human behavior? 
Definition
This denies the central principle of sociology: that factors such as social class ( income, education, and oc-cupation) and people’s roles in groups underlie their behavior ( Epstein 1988; Bush and Simmons 1990)
Term
Kohlberg’s Theory
Definition
Psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg ( 1975, 1984, 1986; Reed 2008) concluded that we go through a sequence of stages as we develop morality.
Term
Kohlberg’s Theory Stages
Definition
he found that children start in the amoral stage I just described. For them, there is no right or wrong, just personal needs to be satisfied. From about ages 7 to 10, children are in what Kohlberg called a preconventional stage. They have learned rules, and they follow them to stay out of trouble. They view right and wrong as what pleases or dis-pleases their parents, friends, and teachers. Their concern is to avoid punishment. about age 10, they enter the conventional stage. During this period, morality means fol-lowing the norms and values they have learned. In the postconventional stage, which Kohlberg says most people don’t reach, individuals reflect on abstract principles of right and wrong and judge people’s behavior according to these principles.
Term
emotions depend on 
Definition
socialization
Term
 a psychologist who studied emo-tions in several countries, 
Definition
Paul Ekman ( 1980)
Term
Paul Ekman studies:
Definition
concluded that everyone experiences six basic emotions: anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise. He also observed that we all show the same facial expressions when we feel these emotions.
Term
gender 
Definition
the behaviors and attitudes that a society considers proper for its males and females; masculinity or femininity
Term
gender socialization 
Definition
the ways in which society sets chil-dren on different paths in life because they are male or female
Term
What happened when Goldberg and Lewis asked mothers to bring their 6- month- old infants into their laboratory, supposedly to observe the infants’ development?
Definition
they also observed the mothers. They found that the mothers kept their daughters closer to them. They also touched their daughters more and spoke to them more frequently than they did to their sons. By the time the children were 13 months old, the girls stayed closer to their mothers dur-ing play, and they returned to their mothers sooner and more often than the boys did. When Goldberg and Lewis set up a barrier to separate the children from their mothers, who were holding toys, the girls were more likely to cry and motion for help; the boys, to try to climb over the barrier.
Term
peer group 
Definition
a group of indi-viduals of roughly the same age who are linked by common interests
Term
In Albania, where Pashe Keqi lives, and in parts of Bosnia and Serbia, it is the custom for some women to become 
Definition
men.
Term
mass media
Definition
 forms of com-munication, such as radio, newspapers, television, and blogs that are directed to mass audiences
Term
gender role 
Definition
the behaviors and attitudes expected of peo-ple because they are female or male
Term
When Advertising begins earlyin life? The average U. S. child watches about how many commercials commercials a year? In these commercials, girls are more likely to be shown as what? and boys?
Definition
the advertising assault of stereotypical images begins early. The average U. S. child watches about 25,000 commercials a year ( Gantz et al. 2007). In these commercials, girls are more likely to be shown as cooperative and boys as aggressive ( Larson 2001). Girls are also more likely to be portrayed as giggly and less capable at tasks ( Browne 1998).
Term
What role Television plays on gender?
Definition
Television reinforces stereotypes of the sexes. On prime- time television, male charactersoutnumber female characters. Male characters are also more likely to be por-trayed in higher- status positions ( Glascock 2001). Sports news also maintains traditional stereotypes. Sociologists who studied the content of televised sports news in Los Angeles found that female athletes receive less coverage and are sometimes trivialized ( Messner et al. 2003). Male newscasters often focus on humorous events in women’s sports or turn the female athlete into a sexual object. Newscasters even manage to emphasize breasts and bras and to engage in locker- room humor.
Term
What are Stereotype- breaking characters?
Definition
Stereotype- breaking characters, in contrast, are a sign of changing times. In comedies, women are more verbally aggressive than men ( Glascock 2001). The powers of the teenager Buffy, The Vampire Slayer, were remarkable. On Alias, Sydney Bristow exhibited extraordinary strength.
Term
Anime 
Definition
is a Japanese cartoon form. Because anime crosses boundaries of video games, television, movies, and books ( comic), we shall consider it as a separate cate-gory. As shown below, one of the most recognizable features of anime is the big- eyed little girls and the fighting little boys. Japanese parents are concerned about anime’s an-tisocial heroes and its depiction of violence, but to keep peace they reluctantly buy anime for their children
Term
Lara Croft,
Definition
 an adventure-seeking archeologist and star of Tomb Raider and its many sequels, is the essence of the new gender image. Lara is smart, strong, and able to utterly vanquish foes. With both guns blazing, she is the cowboy of the twenty- first century, the term cowboy being purpose-fully chosen, as Lara breaks stereotypical gender roles and dominates what previously was the domain of men. She was the first female protagonist in a field of muscle- rippling, gun- toting macho caricatures 
Term
The first group to have a major impact on us 
Definition
is our family. Our experiences in the fam-ily are so intense that their influence is lifelong. These experiences establish our initial motivations, values, and beliefs. In the family, we receive our basic sense of self, ideas about who we are and what we deserve out of life. It is here that we begin to think of ourselves as strong or weak, smart or dumb, good- looking or ugly—
Term
 found that working- class parents are mainly concerned that their children stay out of trouble. For discipline, they tend to use physical punishment. Middle- class parents, in contrast, focus more on developing their children’s curiosity, self- expression, and self- control. They are more likely to reason with their children than to use physical punishment.
Definition
Sociologist Melvin Kohn ( 1959, 1963, 1976, 1977; Kohn et al. 1986)
Term
Kohn wanted to know why some working- class parents act more like middle- class par-ents, and vice versa. 
Definition
As he probed further, he found the key— the parents’ type of job. Some middle- class workers, such as office workers, are supervised closely. It turned out that they follow the working- class pattern and emphasize conformity. And some blue- collar workers, such as those who do home repairs, have a good deal of freedom. These work-ers follow the middle- class model in rearing their children ( Pearlin and Kohn 1966; Kohn and Schooler 1969).
Term
Working- class Working-class parents think of children as similar to 
Definition
wild flowers— they develop nat-urally. Since the child’s development will take care of itself, they see parenting prima-rily as providing food, shelter, and comfort. They set limits on their children’s play (“ Don’t go near the railroad tracks”) and let them play as they wish.
Term
Middle- class parents, in contrast, think of children as more like 
Definition
tender house plants— to develop cor-rectly, they need a lot of guidance. With this orientation, they try to structure their children’s play to help them develop knowledge and social skills. They may want them to play baseball, for example, not for the enjoyment of the sport, but to help them learn how to be team players.
Term
Children who spend more time in day care have 
Definition
weaker bonds with their mothers and are less affection-ate to them. They are also less cooperative with others and more likely to fight and to be “ mean.” By the time they get to kindergarten, they are more likely to talk back to teach-ers and to disrupt the classroom. This holds true regardless of the quality of the day care,
Term
 the influence of religionFor many Americans 
Definition
is more direct. This is especially true for the two of every five Americans who report that during a typical week they attend a reli-gious service ( Gallup Poll 2007). Through their participation in congregational life, they learn doctrine, values, and morality, but the effects on their lives are not limited to these obvious factors. For example, people who participate in religious services learn not only beliefs about the hereafter but also ideas about what kinds of clothing, speech, and man-ners are appropriate for formal occasions.
Term
Schools are 
Definition
one of the primary agents of socialization. One of their chief functions is to sort young people into the adult roles thought appropriate for them, and to teach them the attitudes and skills that match these roles. What sorts of attitudes, motivations, goals, and adult roles do you think this child is learning?
Term
manifest functions 
Definition
the intended beneficial conse-quences of people’s actions
Term
latent functions 
Definition
unintended beneficial consequences of people’s actions
Term
hidden curriculum in our schools. 
Definition
This term refers to values that, although not explicitly taught, are part of a school’s “ cultural message.” For example, the stories and examples that are used to teach math and English may bring with them lessons in patriotism, democracy, justice, and honesty.
Term
corridor curriculum, 
Definition
what students teach one another outside the classroom. Unfortunately, the corridor curriculum seems to emphasize racism, sexism, illicit ways to make money, and coolness
Term
anticipatory socialization 
Definition
the process of learning in ad-vance an anticipated future role or status
Term
Another agent of socialization that comes into play somewhat later in life is the 
Definition
workplace. Those initial jobs that we take in high school and college are much more than just a way to earn a few dollars. From the people we rub shoulders with at work, we learn not only a set of skills but also perspectives on the world.
Term
resocialization
Definition
 the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors
Term
total institution 
Definition
a place that is almost totally controlled by those who run it, in which peo-ple are cut off from the rest of society and the society is mostly cut off from them
Term
degradation ceremony 
Definition
a term coined by Harold Garfinkel to refer to a ritual whose goal is to strip away someone’s position ( social sta-tus); in doing so, a new social and self- identity is stamped on the individual
Term
life course 
Definition
the stages of our life as we go from birth to death
Term
transitional adulthood 
Definition
a term that refers to a period following high school when young adults have not yet taken on the responsibilities ordinarily associated with adulthood; also called adultolescence
Term
Childhood is more than biology. 
Definition
Everyone’s child-hood occurs at some point in history and is embedded in particular social locations, especially social class and gender. These social factors are as vital as our biology, for they deter-mine what our childhood will be like. Although a child’s biological characteristics ( such as being small and dependent) are universal, the child’s social experiences ( the kind of life the child lives) are not. Because of this, sociologists say that childhood varies from culture to culture.
Term

Gradeschool boys and girls often separate themselves

                

Definition
 by gender,  The socialization that occurs during self- segregation by gender is a topic of study by sociologists 
Term
 observed children at two elementary schools in Colorado, they saw how children separate themselves by sex and develop sep-arate gender worlds. The norms that made boys popular were athletic ability, coolness, and toughness. For girls, popularity was based on family background, physical appearance ( clothing and use of makeup), and the ability to attract popular boys. In this children’s sub-culture, academic achievement pulled in opposite directions: For boys, high grades low-ered their popularity, but for girls, good grades increased their standing among peers.
Definition
When sociologists Patricia and Peter Adler ( 1998)
Term
anticipatory socialization 
Definition
the process of learning in ad-vance an anticipated future role or status
Term
What does a woman who has just become a nun have in common with a man who has just divorced?
Definition

 The answer is that they both are undergoing resocialization;

 

Term
 the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors
Definition
resocialization
Term
 a place that is almost totally controlled by those who run it, in which peo-ple are cut off from the rest of society and the society is mostly cut off from them
Definition
total institution
Term
A person entering a total institution is greeted with a 
Definition
degradation ceremony ( Garfinkel 1956), an attempt to remake the self by stripping away the individual’s current identity and stamping a new one in its place. This unwelcome greeting may involve fingerprinting, pho-tographing, or shaving the head. Newcomers may be ordered to strip, undergo an examina-tion ( often in a humiliating, semipublic setting), and then put on a uniform that designates their new status. Officials also take away the individual’s personal identity kit, items such as jewelry, hairstyles, clothing, and other body decorations used to express individuality. Total institutions are isolated from the public. The bars, walls, gates, and guards not only keep the inmates in but also keep outsiders out. Staff members supervise the day- to-day lives of the residents. Eating, sleeping, showering, recreation— all are standardized. In-mates learn that their previous statuses— student, worker, spouse, parent— mean nothing. The only thing that counts is their current status.
Term
 the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors
Definition

resocialization

 

Term
 a place that is almost totally controlled by those who run it, in which peo-ple are cut off from the rest of society and the society is mostly cut off from them
Definition

total institution

 

Term
 a term coined by Harold Garfinkel to refer to a ritual whose goal is to strip away someone’s position ( social sta-tus); in doing so, a new social and self- identity is stamped on the individual
Definition
degradation ceremony
Term
 a term that refers to a period following high school when young adults have not yet taken on the responsibilities ordinarily associated with adulthood; also called adultolescence
Definition
transitional adulthood
Term
Does socialization end when we enter adulthood? 
Definition
Socialization occurs throughout the life course. In indus-trialized societies, the life course can be divided into childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, the middle years, and the older years. The West is adding a new stage, transitional adulthood. Life course patterns vary by ge-ography, history, gender, race– ethnicity, and social class, as well as by individual experiences such as health and age at marriage. Pp. 89– 93.
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