# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Chapter 2
Newton's First Law of Motion-Inertia
37
Physics
08/30/2012

Term
 Newton's 1st Law (3)
Definition
 -An object at rest stays at rest. -An object in motion stays in motion and continues in a straight line at the same speed unless acted upon by a non-0 net force. -"Law of Inertia"
Term
 What is inertia?
Definition
 The property of things to resist changes in motion.
Term
 What is mass? (2)   The bigger the mass, the ____ the inertia.
Definition
 -the measure of inertia -how much space an object takes up   bigger
Term
 What is the difference between mass and weight?
Definition
 Weight is determind by the gravitational pull of an object, but mass is unchanging no matter the gravitational pull.
Term
 What are the two types of motion that Aristotle discussed?
Definition
 natural and violent
Term
 On an inclined plane, as an angle increases, the speed of an object will ________ when going down and ______ when going up.
Definition
 increase, decrease
Term
 Who proved that objects dropped at the same time from the same height will hit the ground at the speed and time?   What causes this?   Name two reasons the falling objects may land at slightly different times.
Definition
 Galileo   gravity   human error air resistance
Term
 What is air resistance dependent on? (2)
Definition
 surface area mass distribution of the object
Term
 People with (less/more/the same) mass have more terminal velocity.
Definition
 more
Term
 Name two common experiments that illustrate Newton's 1st Law.
Definition
 the coin in the cup trick the table cloth trick
Term
 What is force (in the simplest sense)?
Definition
 A push or pull.
Term
 What is mechanical equilibrium?   Describe what an object at rest does at mechanical equilibrium.   Decribe what a moving object does in mechanical equilibrium.
Definition
 The state of an object or system of objects for which there are no changes in motion.   If at rest, the state of rest persists.   If  moving, motion continues without change.
Term
 What is the equilibrium rule.   Describe it in equation form.
Definition
 For any object or system of objects in equilibrium, the sum of the forces acting on it equal zero.   ∑F=0
Term
 Ancient Greek scientists understood some of the properties of ______, but werre confused about _____.
Definition
 light, motion
Term
 Who is considered the "Father of Western Science"?   He was one of the firsts to study ________ seriously.   He attempted to clarify motion by ________.   What was his idea about moving objects?   What were the two main classes he divided motion into? Define each.   Give an example of an object moving to its natural place.   What was his opinion on dropping two objects of varying weights at the same time from the same height?   What type of objects did he think had their own rules about motion and what was his reasoning?   What is the "fifth element" and which objects did he think were made up of this?   Name the only celestial body with a detectable variation from the rest.   Name the normal state of every object excluding celestial bodies, according to this man. Therefore the Earth (moves/doesn't move).   Are pushes and pulls always evident?   What situation did he believe was impossible, so therefore did not put into consideration? What concept did this cause him to overlook?
Definition
 Aristotle   motion   classification   All motion is due to the nature of the moving object or due to a sustained push or pull. Every object has its proper place in the universe, determined by this nature, and, if not in its proper place, will strive to get there.   natural motion (Proceeds from the nature of the object, dependent on which of the four elements the object contains) and violent motion (imposed forces, resulting from pushing or pulling, that move an object from its proper place)   any of the following would be appropriate clay is made of earth so when you drop it, it hits the ground smoke is made of air, so it floats up feather is made of air and earth, so it will hit the ground, but not as quickly as clay   The heavier of the two would hit the ground 1st, because objects fall at speeds proportionate to their weight.   celestial bodies earthly objects move up and down and celestial objects move in a circular; up and down has a distinct beginning and in, but circles go on forever   quintessence; celestial bodies   the moon   at rest; doesn't move   no   vacuums; inertia
Term
 What is the formula to find the weight of an object?
Definition
 weight=mass*gravity
Term
 In Newton's 1st Law, how does a headrest help guard against whiplash in a rear-end collision?   A monkey hangs stationary at the end of a vertical vine. What two forces act on the monkey? Which is greater?   Can an object be in mechanical equilibrium when only one force acts on it?   Nellie hangs at rest form the end of 2 ropes. How does the reading on the scale compare with her weight?
Definition
 Your body is not part of the car and therefore wants to stay at rest. When your head jerks back, the headrest stops your head from jerking too far back and therefore prevents whiplash.   Gravity puling the monkey down and the vine pulling the monkey up; neither is greater because he is stationary so the net force is zero.   No, because if only one force acts on it, then the net force will not be zero.   Each scale reads half of her weight.
Term
 What is the sum of all the forces in an equation?   What are the two forces acting on a book sitting on a table and what is the sum of the forces?   What letter represents support force?
Definition
 Net force   Gravity is acting downward. A support force is acting up. net force=zero   n
Term
 What is the equation for equilibrium?   What is the difference between equilibrium and mechanical equilibrium?   When solving for net forces, it is important to notice if ________________.   The length of an arrow in a problem symbolizes _______.   The length of an arrow representing 300 N would be _______ than the arrow representing 50 N.   The friction force equals the ______ or ____ force.   ______ and _______ is included in net force. Sign denotes_____, number denotes _______.
Definition
 ∑F=0   Equilibrium is a general term, and mechanical equilibrium is specifically discussing motion, or lack of motion.   all the forces are represented in the problem   magnitude   longer   support, applied   direction, magnitude (any order) direction, magnitude (specific order)
Term
 A crate has a 10 N force to the right, a 20 N force to the left, and another 15 N force to the right. Is this equilibrium? If not, what is the net force? What can be done to make it equilibrium?
Definition
 No, 5 N to the right. If it continues 5 N to the right.
Term
 _______ has its own center of mass.   You can balance a pencil on your finger if you put your finger on the _________. The support force of your finger equals ________.
Definition
 Everything   center of mass the weight of the pencil
Term
 Name the three men responsible for overthrowing the Aristotelian view.
Definition
 Copernicus, Galileo, Newton
Term
 Who formulated the theory of moving Earth?   He stated that the simplest way to account for movement of the sun, moon, and planets was to assume _______.   Name the two reasons he didn't make his work public.   What is the name of the journal he wrote on his hypothesis?   What did his hypothesis threaten?
Definition
 Copernicus   Earth circles the sun   fear of prosecution doubts about his hypothesis   De Revolutionibis   common church beliefs at that time
Term
 Who is responsible for popularizing Copernicus' hypothesis?   What did he discredit and how?   He was the first to provide conclusive _______ and _____.   Because of his findings, he was _______.   He was one of the first to build a _____ and the first to _____. What did he discover by doing this?
Definition
 Galileo   Aristotle's views on motion; Leaning Tower of Pisa experiment   observations, experiments   sent to trial and convicted of heresy   telescope; direct it to the night sky; mountains on Jupiter's moons
Term
 Who was the first to experiment with inclined planes?   What did he state that contradicted Aristotle's view?   Because of what Galileo saw with the ball and inclined planes, what did he reason about a ball on a flat horizontal surface?   The less friction, the more objects approach ________.
Definition
 Galileo   If there is no interference on a moving object, it will keep moving in a straight line forever.   The ball will never speed up or slow down, but will stop because of friction.   constant speed
Term
 Two inclined planes facing each other. The ball rolls down first then up the second until __________. Galileo reasoned that this was caused by ______.   When reducing the height of the upward sloping plane the ball (did/didn't) reach the same height and had to go (the same/shorter/farther).
Definition
 it almost reaches its initial height; friction   did; farther
Term
 What causes an object to keep moving straight ahead?   By discovering this, what did Galileo discover about the Earth's motion?   Is inertia the reason a moving object continues in motion when no force acts?
Definition
 inertia   no force is required to keep the Earth moving forward   No, inertia is a property. We do not know the reason.
Term
 Who discovered gravity?   What type of math did he invent?   Extended ______ work and formulated 3 laws of _______.   Formulated a theory of the nature of _____ and used _____ to show that ______. This was the experiment that _______.   He invented world's first ________.   He showed that the universe runs according to ______.   He contributed to the _______.
Definition
 Sir Isaac Newton   calculus   Galileo; motion   light; prisms; white light is composed of all colors of the rainbow; made him famous   refelctor telescope   natural laws   Age of Reason
Term
 A hockey puck sliding across the ice finally comes to rest. How would Aristotle interpret this behavior? How would Galileo and Newton interpret it?
Definition
 A: it slides to a stop because it has reached its proper and natural state; rest G&N: the puck will continue in motion, but will eventually slow down and stop because of the friction acting on it
Term
 Calculate the following forces:   Two people pulling on two ends of a rope with the same force.   2 five pound forces in the same direction.   10 pounds exerted to the right and 5 pounds to the left.
Definition
 0   10 lbs in that direction   5 lbs to the right
Term
 Name the four types of force.   What is a vector quantity?   What is tension?
Definition
 electrical, magnetic, graviational, muscular effort   A quantity that has both magnitude and direction.   a stretching force
Term
 2 lbs is approximately _____ N   Hang a bag of sugar on a string, then on a scale. What forces are acting on the bag?   How do you read "∑F=0"?   A downward force is a (negative/positve/it doesn't matter as long as they're opposite) force. An upward force is a (negative/positive/it doesn't matter as long as they're opposite) force.   Give three other names for an upward force.
Definition
 9   tension acting upward, weight acting downward   The vector sum of the forces is zero.   negative; positive   support force, normal force, right angle force
Term
 Fred and George are identical twins.   Fred stands alone in the exact middle of a scaffold hanging from scales. The left scale reads 500 N, what does the right one read?   George stands alone, but closer to the right. The left scale reads 170 N. What does the right scale read?   Fred hangs from the right end of the scaffold. The left scale reads zero. What does the right scale read?
Definition
 500 N   830 N   1000 N
Term
 What is the net force on a bathroom scale when a 150 pound person stands on it? Which force equals the weight (the force the scale reads)?   If this person stands on two bathroom scales with their weight evenly divided between the two scales, what will each scale read?   What if they stand with more weight on the left scale?
Definition
 zero; support force   75   It will be more than 75 on the left scale and less than 75 on the right scale, but the sum will equal 150.
Term
 How can you test if something is in equilibrium?
Definition
 Note whether or not it undergoes changes in its state of motion (including speed and direction).
Term
 The Earth travels at _____ km/s.   Why do we not feel the Earth moving?   Aristotle saw vertical motion as ______ and horizontal motion as _____ because it required a _______.
Definition
 30   inertia   natural; unnatural; sustained force
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