# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Chapter 25: Vibrations and Waves Vocabulary
Vibrations and Waves Vocabulary
27
Physics
07/20/2012

Term
 vibration
Definition
 An oscillation, or repeating back-and-forth motion, about an equilibrium position.
Term
 wave
Definition
 A disturbance that repeats regularly in space and time and that is transmitted progressively from one place to the next with no actual transport of matter.
Term
 period
Definition
 The time required for a pendulum to make one to-and-fro swing In general, the time required to complete a single cycle.
Term
 simple harmonic motion
Definition
 The back-and-forth vibratory motion of a swinging pendulum.
Term
 sine curve
Definition
 A curve whose shape represents the crests and troughs of a wave, as traced out by a swinging pendulum that drops a trail of sand over a moving conveyor belt.
Term
 crest
Definition
 One of the places in a wave where the wave is highest or the disturbance is greatest.
Term
 trough
Definition
 One of the places in a wave where the wave is lowest, or the disturbance is greatest in the opposite direction from a crest.
Term
 amplitude
Definition
 The distance from the midpoint to the maximum (crest of a wave, or equivalently, from the midpoint to the minimum (trough).
Term
 wavelength
Definition
 The distance from the top of the crest of a wave to the top of the following crest, or equivalently, the distance between successive identical parts of the wave.
Term
 frequency
Definition
 The number of events (cycles, vibrations, oscillations, or any repeated event) per time; measured in hertz (or events per time). Inverse of period.
Term
 hertz
Definition
 The SI unit of frequency. One hertz (Hz) is one cycle per second.
Term
 transverse wave
Definition
 A wave with vibration at right angles to the direction the wave is traveling.
Term
 longitudinal wave
Definition
 A wave in which the vibration is in the same direction as that in which the wave is traveling, rather than at right angles to it.
Term
 interference pattern
Definition
 A pattern formed by the overlapping of two or more waves that arrive in a region at the same time.
Term
 constructive interference
Definition
 Addition of two or more waves when wave crests overlap to produce a resulting wave of increased amplitude.
Term
 destructive interference
Definition
 Combination of waves where crests of one wave overlap troughs of another, resulting in a wave of decreased amplitude.
Term
 out of phase
Definition
 Term applied to two waves for which the crest of one wave arrives at a point at the same time that a trough of the second wave arrives. Their effects cancel each other.
Term
 in phase
Definition
 Term applied to two or more waves whose crests (and troughs) arrive at a place at the same time, so that their effects reinforce each other.
Term
 standing wave
Definition
 Wave in which parts of the wave remain stationary and the wave appears not to be traveling. The result of interference between an incident (original) wave and a reflected wave.
Term
 node
Definition
 Any part of a standing wave that remains stationary.
Term
 antinodes
Definition
 The positions of a standing wave where the largest amplitudes occur.
Term
 Doppler effect
Definition
 The apparent change in frequency of a wave due to the motion of the source or of the receiver.
Term
 blue shift
Definition
 An incrase in the measured frequency of light from an approaching source; called the blue shift because the apparent increase is toward the high-frequency, or blue, end of the color spectrum. Also occurs when an observer approaches a source.
Term
 red shift
Definition
 A decrease in the measured frequency of light (or other radiation) from a receding source, called the red shift because the decrease is toward the low-frequency, or red end of the color spectrum.
Term
 bow wave
Definition
 The V-shaped wave produced by an object moving on a liquid surface faster than the wave speed.
Term
 shock wave
Definition
 A cone-shaped wave produced by an object moving at supersonic speed through a fluid.
Term
 sonic boom
Definition
 The sharp crack heard when the shock wave that sweeps behind a supersonic aircraft reaches the listener.
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