# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Chapter 1 Sections 1-4
Patrick Hurley's "A Concise Introduction to Logic"
31
Mathematics
02/12/2014

Term
 Logic
Definition
 The organized body of knowledge, or science, that evaluates arguments
Term
 Argument
Definition
 A group of statements, one or more of which (the premises) are claimed to provide support for one of the others (the conclusion)
Term
 Statement
Definition
 A sentence that is either true or false
Term
 Truth Values
Definition
 Truth and falsity
Term
 Premises
Definition
 Statements that set forth the reasons or evidence
Term
 Conclusion
Definition
 Statement that the evidence is claiming to support or imply
Term
 Inference
Definition
 The reasoning process expressed by an argument (used interchangeably with "argument")
Term
 Proposition
Definition
 The meaning or information content of a statement (used interchangeably with "statement")
Term
 Syllogistic Logic
Definition
 Fundamental elements are terms and arguments are evakuated as good or bad
Term
 Modal Logic
Definition
 The kind of logic that involves such concepts as possibility, necessity, belief, and doubt
Term
 Factual Claim
Definition
 at least one of the statements must claim to present evidence or reasoning
Term
 Inferential Claim
Definition
 There must b a claim that the alleged evidence supports or implies something
Term
 Piece of Evidence
Definition
 A form of expression that makes a recommendation about some future decision or course of conduct
Term
 Statement belief/Opinion
Definition
 An expression about what someone happens to believe or think about something
Term
 Loosely Associated Statements
Definition
 May be about the same general subject, but they lack a claim that one of them is proved by others
Term
 Expository Passage
Definition
 A kind of discourse that begins with a topic sentence followed by one or more sentences that develop the topic sentence
Term
 Explanandum
Definition
 The statement that describes the event or phenomenon to be explained
Term
 Explanus
Definition
 The statement (/group of) that purports (=implication) to do the explaining
Term
 Antecedent
Definition
 The component statement immediately following the "if" of a conditional statement
Term
 Consequent
Definition
 Follows "then" in a conditional statement
Term
 Deductive Argument
Definition
 An argument incorporating the claim that it is IMPOSSIBLE for the conclusion to be flase, given the premises are true
Term
 Inductive Argument
Definition
 An argument incorporating the claim that it is IMPROBABLE that the conclusion be false given that the premises are true
Term
 Valid Deductive Argument
Definition
 An argument in which it is IMPOSSIBLE for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true
Term
 Invalid Deductive Argument
Definition
 A deductive argument in which it IS POSSIBLE for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true
Term
 Sound Argument
Definition
 A deductive argument that is VALID and has ALL TRUE PREMISES
Term
 Unsound Argument
Definition
 A deductive argument that is invalid, has one or more false premises, or both
Term
 Strong Inductive Argument
Definition
 An inductive argument in which it is improbable that the conclusion be false given that the premises are true
Term
 Weak Inductive Argument
Definition
 An argument in which the conclusion does not follow probably from the premises, even though it is claimed to
Term
 Cognat Argument
Definition
 An inductive argument that is STRONG and has ALL TRUE premises
Term
 Uncogent Argument
Definition
 An inductive argument that is weak, has one or more false premises, fails to meet the total evidence requirement, or any combo of these
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