Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Chapter 1
Introduction to Earth Science
30
Geology
Undergraduate 2
02/21/2013

Additional Geology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Meteorology
Definition
the study of the atmosphere and the processes that produce weather
Term
Astronomy
Definition
the study of the universe
Term
Geology
Definition
literally the “study of Earth”
Term
Oceanography
Definition
a study of the ocean
Term
environmental
Definition
is usually reserved for those aspects that focus on the relationships between people and the natural environment
Term
Hypothesis
Definition
tentative or untested explanation
Term
Theory
Definition
tested and confirmed hypothesis
Term
Paradigm
Definition
a theory that explains a large number of interrelated aspects of the natural world
Term
Atmosphere
Definition
Thin, tenuous blanket of air
One-half lies below 5.6 kilometers (3.5 miles)
Term
Biosphere
Definition
Includes all life
Concentrated near the surface in a zone that extends from the ocean floor upward for several kilometers into the atmosphere
Term
System
Definition
any size group of interacting parts that form a complex whole
Term
Negative-feedback
Definition
feedback mechanisms resist change and stabilize the system
Term
Positive-feedback
Definition
mechanisms enhance the system
Term
Sources of energy
Definition
Sun – drives external processes such as weather, ocean circulation, and erosional processes
Earth’s interior – drives internal processes including volcanoes, earthquakes, and mountain building
Term
Open systems
Definition
both energy and matter flow into and out of the system (e.g., a river system)
Term

Geologic Time Scale

Definition
It divides the 4.6 billion-year history of Earth into many different units and provides a meaningful time frame within whichthe events of the geologic past are arranged.
Term
Nebular Theory
Definition

States that the bodies of our solar system evolved from an enormous rotating cloud called the solar nebula

 

Term
Hydrosphere
Definition
Is a dynamic mass of water that is continually on the move, evaporating from the oceans to the atmosphere, precipitating to the land, and running back to the oceans again.
Term
Geosphere
Definition
An extension from the surface to the center of the planet, a depth of 6,400 km, making it by far the largest of Earth's four spheres.
Term
Crust
Definition

Earth's relatively thin, rocky outer skin, is of the two different Types –continental and oceanic crust.

 

Term
Lithosphere
Definition
(Sphere of rock) consist of the entire crust and uppermost mantle and forms Earth's relatively cool, rigid outer shell.
Term
Asthenosphere
Definition
a soft and comparatively weak layer that lies beneath the lithosphere, to a depth of about 350 kilometer.
Term
Core
Definition
Is thought to be an iron-nickle alloy with minor amounts of oxygen, silicon, and sulfur --elements that readily form compound with iron.
Term
Plate Tectonics
Definition
A theory that finally emerged and provided geologists with the first comprehensive model of Earth's internal workings.
Term
Continental Shelf
Definition
A gently sloping platform of material that extends seaward from the shore.
Term
Continental Slope
Definition
A relatively steep dropoff that extends from the outer edege of the continental shelf to the floor of the deep ocean.
Term
Deep-ocean trenches
Definition
Relatively narrow and represent only a small fraction of the ocean floor, they are nevertheless very significant features.
Term
Continental Rises
Definition
In regions where trenches do not exist, the steep continental slope merges into a more gradual incline and also consist of a thick accumlation of sediments that moved downslope from the continental shelf to the deep-ocean floor.
Term
Seamounts
Definition
Submerged volcanic structures that dot the ocean floor and can sometimes form long narrow chains.
Term
Earth Science
Definition
Is the name for all the sciences that collectively seek to understand Earth and its neighbors in space.
Supporting users have an ad free experience!