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Chapter 18 vocab
Chemistry I AC
23
Chemistry
11th Grade
05/05/2011

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Term
activated complex
Definition
An unstable arrangement of atoms that exists momentarily at the peak of the activation-energy barrier; an intermediate or transitional structure formed during the course of a reaction
Term
activation energy
Definition
the minimum energy colliding particles must have in order to react
Term
chemical equilibrium
Definition
a state of balance in which the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal; no net change in the amount of reactants and products occurs in the chemical system
Term
collision theory
Definition
atoms, ions, and molecules can react to form products when they collide, provided that the particles have enough kinetic energy
Term
common ion
Definition
an ion that is common to both salts in a solution; in a solution of silver nitrate and silver chloride, Ag+ would be a common ion
Term
common ion effect
Definition
a decrease in the solubility of an ionic compound cause by the addition of a common ion
Term
elementary reaction
Definition
a reaction in which reactants are converted to products in a single step
Term
entropy
Definition
(S) a measure of the disorder of a system; systems tend to go from a state of order (low entropy) to a state of disorder (high entropy)
Term
equilibrium position
Definition
the relative concentrations of reactants and products of a reaction that has reached equilibrium; indicates whether the reactants or products are favored in the reversible reaction
Term
free energy
Definition
the energy available to do work
Term
Gibbs free-energy change
Definition
(delta G) the maximum amount of energy that can be coupled to another process to do useful work.
Term
inhibitor
Definition
a substance that interferes with the action of a catalyst
Term
intermediate
Definition
a product of one of the steps in a reaction mechanism; it becomes a reactant in the next step
Term
law of disorder
Definition
a natural tendency of systems to move in the direction of maximum chaos or disorder
Term
Le Ch√Ętelier's principle
Definition
when a stress is applied to a system in dynamic equilibrium, the system changes in a way that relieves the stress
Term
nonspontaneous reaction
Definition
a reaction that does not favor the formation of products at the specified conditions
Term
rate
Definition
describes the speed of change over an interval of time
Term
rate law
Definition
an expression relating the rate of a reaction to the concentration of the reactants
Term
reaction mechanism
Definition
a series of elementary reactions that take place during the course of a complex reaction
Term
solubility product constant
Definition
(Ksp) an equilibrium constant applied to the solubility of electrolytes; it is equal to the product of the concentrations of the ions each raised to a power equal to the coefficient of the ion in the dissociation equation
Term
specific rate constant
Definition
a proportionality constant relating the concentrations of reactants to the rate of the reaction
Term
spontaneous reaction
Definition
a reaction that favors the formation of products at the specified conditions; spontaneity depends on enthalpy and entropy changes
Term
transition state
Definition
a term sometimes used to refer to the activated complex
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