# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Chapter 14 The Behavior of Gases
Key Concepts and Vocabulary
20
Chemistry
05/13/2012

Term
 Why are gases easier to compress than solids or liquids are?
Definition
 gases are easily compressed because of the space between the particles in a gas.
Term
 What are the three factors that affect gas pressure?
Definition
 the amount of gas, volume, and temperature are factors that affect gas pressure.
Term
 Compressibility
Definition
 a measure of how much the volume of matter decreases under pressure.
Term
 How are the pressure, volume, and temperature of a gas related?
Definition
 if a temperature is constant, as the pressure of a gas increases, the volume decreases. As the temperature of an enclosed gas increases, the volume increases, if the pressure is constant. As the temperature of an enclosed gas increases, the pressure increases, if the volume is constant.
Term
 When is the combined gas law used to solve problems?
Definition
 the combined gas law allows you to do calculations for situations in which only the amount of gas is constant.
Term
 Boyle's law
Definition
 states that for a given mass of gas at constant temperature, the volume of the gas varies inversely with pressure.
Term
 Charles's law
Definition
 states that the colume of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature if the pressure is kept constant.
Term
 Gay-Lussac's law
Definition
 states that the pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature if the volume remains constant.
Term
 Combined gas law
Definition
 describes the relationship among the pressure, temperature, and volume of an enclosed gas.
Term
 What is needed to calculate the amount of gas in a sample at given conditions of volume, temperature, and pressure?
Definition
 to calculate the number of moles of a contained gas requires an expression that contains the variable n.
Term
 Under what conditions are real gases most likely to differ from ideal gases?
Definition
 real gases differ most from an ideal gas at low temperatures and high pressures.
Term
 Ideal gas constant
Definition
 (R) has the value 8.31 (L*kPa)/(K*mol).
Term
 Ideal gas law
Definition
 includes all four variables--P,V,T,and n. Usually written PV=nRT.
Term
 How is the total pressure of a mixture of gases related to the partial pressure of the component gases?
Definition
 in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the partial pressure of the gases.
Term
 How does the molar mass of a gas affect the rate at which the gas effuses or diffuses?
Definition
 gases of lower molar mass diffuse and effuse faster than gases of higher molar mass.
Term
 Partial pressure
Definition
 the contribution each gas in a mixture makes to the total pressure.
Term
 Dalton's law of partial pressures
Definition
 states that, at constant volume and temperature, the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases.
Term
 Diffusion
Definition
 the tendency of molecules to move toward areas of lower concentration until the concentration is uniform throughout.
Term
 Effusion
Definition
 a gas escapes through a tiny hole in its container.
Term
 Graham's law of effusion
Definition
 states that the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the gas's molar mass.
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