# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Chapter 13 Temperature and Kinetic Theory
concepts and formulas
43
Physics
01/15/2013

Term
 Atomic and molecular masses are measured in what unit?
Definition
 unified atomic mass units (u). carbon-12 atom has a mass of exactly 12.0000 u.
Term
 Express unified atomic mass units (u). in kilograms
Definition
 =1.6605 x 10-27
Term
 define Brownian motion
Definition
 the jittery motion of tiny flecks in water; these are the result of collisions with individual water molecules.
Term
 Most materials _____ when they are heated Most materials _____ when they are cooled down
Definition
 expand contract
Term
 The freezing point of water is (F & C)
Definition
 32 F 0 C
Term
 the boiling point of water is C & F
Definition
 100°C, or 212°F
Term
 Describe the concept of Thermal Equilibrium
Definition
 When 2 objects placed in thermal contact will eventually come to the same temperature.
Term
 What is the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
Definition
 The zeroth law of thermodynamics says that if two objects are each in equilibrium with a third object, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other
Term
 An object can expand linearly when
Definition
 when an object is heated.
Term
 If you heat a thin circular ring in the oven, does the hole's ring get smaller or bigger?
Definition
 Yes, when the ring is heated , the ENTIRE circle will expand with the rest of the material.
Term
 Volume expansion:β is the coefficient of volume expansion. For uniform solids β is approximatly equal to
Definition
 3a (B is 3x bigger than alpha which is for linear expansion)
Term
 Thermal Expansion & Water what is the lowest temp that water can maintain its minimum volume? what happens if the temp falls lower than that?
Definition
 1. 4C 2.As it cools further, it expands, as anyone who has left a bottle in the freezer to cool and then forgets about it can testify.
Term
 What is thermal stress?
Definition
 If a  material is fixed at its ends and therefore isunable to expand when the temperature changes. It will then experience large compressive or tensilestress
Term
 what is boyle's law?
Definition
 the volume of a given amount of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure as long as the temperature is constant. ↑P, ↓V
Term
 The volume is linearly proportional to the temperature,as longs as....
Definition
 the temperature is somewhat above the condensation point and the pressure is constant
Term
 What is absolute zero?
Definition
 the volume becomes zero at −273.15°C
Term
 The concept of absolute zero allows us to define a third temperature scale – the absolute , or ------ scale
Definition
 Kelvin (This scale starts with 0 K at absolute zero, but otherwise is the same as the Celsius scale)
Term
 The kelvin sclae: 1. freezing point of water  2.the boiling point is
Definition
 1.  273.15 K 2. 373.15 K
Term
 Finally, when the volume is constant, the pressure is
Definition
 directly proportional to the temperature (p=T)
Term
 A mole (mol) is defined
Definition
 as the number of grams of a substance that is numerically equal to the molecular mass of the substance 1 mol H2 has a mass of 2 g
Term
 How to calc the number of moles in a certain mass of material (formula)
Definition
 n (mol)= mass (grams)/molecular mass g/mol
Term
 The Ideal Gas Law
Definition
 PV=nRT n :# of moles R : universal gas constant 8.315 J/ (mol•K) 0.0821 (L• atm)/ (mol•K) 1.99 calories/(mol•K)
Term
 Ideal Gas Law: Standard temperature and pressure (STP)
Definition
 T=273 K (O°C) P=1.00 atm =1.013 x103 N/m2 (Pa) =101.3 kPa
Term
 Volume of 1 mol of an ideal gas is
Definition
 22.4 L
Term
 The Ideal Gas Law: If the amount of gas does not change write the formula
Definition
 P1V1/T1= P2V2/T2 Always measure T in Kelvins Pressure must be in absolute pressure:  (in atm)
Term
 the number of molecules in 1 mole is the same for all gases. That number is called Avogadro’s number (write it)
Definition
 6.023 x 1023
Term
 Ideal Gas Law: in Terms of Molecules Avogadro’s Number
Definition
 PV=NkT where: N:# number of moles of a gas x Avogadro’s number  k : Boltzmann’s constant. k:R/NA = 8.315 J /mol• K /6.02 x 1023/mol = 1.38 x10-23 J/K
Term
 A PT diagram is called a
Definition
 phase diagram
Term
 The solid-liquid transition is
Definition
 melting or freezing
Term
 the liquid-vapor transition is
Definition
 boiling or condensing
Term
 solid-vapor transition is
Definition
 sublimation
Term
 The triple point is the
Definition
 point where all three phases can coexist in equilibrium.
Term
 evaporate
Definition
 occurs when the fastest moving molecules escape from the surface of a liquid
Term
 The inverse process of evaporation  is called
Definition
 condensation
Term
 When the evaporation and condensation processes are in _______, the vapor just above the liquid is said to be ________, and its pressure is the _________.
Definition
 1.equilibrium 2.saturated 3.saturated vapor pressure
Term
 The saturated vapor pressure ______ with temperature.
Definition
 increases
Term
 A liquid boils when
Definition
 its saturated vapor pressure equals the external pressure
Term
 Partial pressure
Definition
 is the pressure each component of a mixture of gases would exert if it were the only gas present. The partial pressure of water in the air can be as low as zero, and as high as the saturated vapor pressure at that temperature.
Term
 Relative humidity def
Definition
 is a measure of the saturation of the air.
Term
 When the humidity is _____, it feels muggy; it is hard for any more water to evaporate.
Definition
 high
Term
 The ___ is the temperature at which the air would be saturated with water. If the temperature goes ____ the dew point, then _______ may occur
Definition
 1.dew point 2. below 3.dew, fog, rain
Term
 1.Diffusion occurs from a region of :   Diffusion is the process whereby the concentration of a substance becomes uniform
Definition
 2.high concentration towards a region of lower concentration
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