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Chapter 12
Earths evolution
30
Geology
Undergraduate 2
02/21/2013

Additional Geology Flashcards

 


 

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Term
Solar Nebula
Definition
A large rotating  cloud of interstellar dust and gas, from which solar system, including Earth, formed about 4.6 billion years ago.
Term
Supernova
Definition

exploding star: a catastrophic explosion of a large star in the latter stages of stellar evolution, with a resulting short-lived luminosity from 10 to 100 million times that of the Sun

Term
Protoplanets
Definition

A developing planetary body that grows by the accumulation of planetesimals.

There are 8 in total

Term
Planetesimals
Definition
A solid celestial body that accumulated during the first stages of planetary formation. Those celestial bodies aggregated into increasingly larger bodies, ultimately forming eight planets.
Term
Goldilocks Scenario
Definition
Astronomers refer to this as the scenario in which Earth developed under "just right" conditions (right location, time, and size) to support higher life-forms.
Term
Era
Definition
A major division on the geologic calendar, which is divided into shorter units called periods.
Term
Outgassing
Definition
Process through which gasses traped in the planet's interior are released. This process produced first Earth's enduring atmosphere and ocean.
Term
Major divisions of Earth's interior
Definition

CORE (iron rich)

PRIMITIVE CRUST (thin layer)

MANTLE (the thickest layer located between the core and the crust

Term
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Definition
Process in which the sun's energy is used by organisms to produce organic material (molecules of sugar)from carbon dioxide and water, releasing oxygen as a by-product
Term
Banded Iron Formations
Definition
A finely layered iron and silica-rich layer deposited (on the seafloor)mainly during the Precambrian
Term

Greenhouse Effect

 

Definition
The transmission of shortwave solar radiation by the atmosphere, coupled with the selected absorption of long- wavelength terrestrial radiation, especially by water, vapor and carbon dioxide.
Term
cratons
Definition
large crustal provinces that accreted with others to form even larger crustal blocks
Term
Greenhouse effect
Definition
The transmission of short waves solar radiation by the atmosphere, coupled with the selective absorption of longer wavelenth terrestrial radiation, especially by water vapor and carbon dioxide.
Term
Supercontinents
Definition
Large landmasses that contain all, or nearly all existing continents.
PANGAEA was the most recent one.
RODINIA was the earlest one.
Term
Supercontinent cycle
Definition
The idea that the rifting and dispersal of one supercontinent is followed by a long period during which the fragments gradually reassemble into a new supercontinent.
Term
Prokaryotes
Definition
The first known organisms with single cell bacteria. Which means their genetic material (DNA) is not separated from the rest of the cell by a nucleus.
Term
Stromatolites
Definition
Limestone mats built by lime-accreting bacteria. Fossil evidence for the existence of these microscopic bacteria includes distinctively layered mounds of calcium carbonate.
Term
Eukaryotes
Definition
The oldest fossils of more advanced organisms. They are about 2.1 billion years old.
Term
Paleozoic Era
Definition
A time span that saw the emergence of a spectacular variety of new life forms. All major invertebrate groups made their appearance.
Term
Cambrian Period
Definition
Marks the beginning of the Paleozoic era. This was the golden age of Trilobites.
Term
Ordovician Period
Definition
This marked the appearance of abundant cephalopods - mobile, highly developed mollusks that became the major predators of their time.
Term
Devonian Period
Definition
Often referred to as the 'Age of the fishes'. During this period a group of fishes called the lobe-finned fish began to adapt to terrestrial environments.
Term
Mesozoic Era
Definition
Age of the Dinosaurs.A span on the geologic time scale between the Paleozoic and Cenozoic eras from about 248 million to 65 million years ago.
Term
Cenozoic Era
Definition
Age of Mammals. During this time mammals replaced reptiles as the dominant land animals. It is also the age of flowering plants.
Term
Angiosperms
Definition
Commonly known as flowering plants, are seed-plants that have reproductive structures called flowers and fruits.
Term
Marsupial Mammals
Definition
Young marsupials are born live at a very early stage of development. At birth, the tiny and immature young enter the mother's pouch to suckle and complete development.
Term
Placental Mammals
Definition
They develop within the mother's body for a longer period, so birth occurs when the young are comparatively mature.
Term
Chicxulub Crater
Definition
A giant impact crater that formed about 65 million years ago and has since been filled with sediments. It is regarded by some researchers to be the impact site that resulted in the demise of the dinosaur.
Term
Lobe-finned Fish
Definition
These types of fishes had sacks that could be filled with air to supplement their breathing through gills. The first of these fishes probably occupied freshwater tidal flats or small ponds near the ocean.
Term
Asteroids
Definition
Thousands of small planet like bodies, ranging in size from a few hundred kilometers to less than a kilometer, whose orbits lie mainly between those of Mars and Jupiter.
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