# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Chapter 1
Instrumentation and Electroacoustics
45
Audiology
03/12/2017

Term
 ___ “is the fundamental element that keeps us on the move.”
Definition
 force
Term
 What is the unit of force?
Definition
 Newton (N)
Term
 “If we move an object from one place to another, we have accomplished ___.”
Definition
 work
Term
 What is the equation for work?What is the unit of work?
Definition
 Force (F) X Distance (D)Newton/Meter (or whatever unit distance is in)
Term
 1 Joule is =1 ___/___, which means 1 Joule=___ X ___. So joule is the unit of work.
Definition
 N/M; force X distance
Term
 What is the equation for power?What is the unit?
Definition
 Work/Time or Energy/Timewatt
Term
 1 watt=1 ___/___. So joule is also the unit of ___. So work and energy are ___.
Definition
 joule/second; energy; interchangeable
Term
 1 N of force=___ dynes
Definition
 100,000
Term
 1 dyne/cm of work or energy=1 ___
Definition
 erg
Term
 A dyne is only a fraction of a ___
Definition
 newton
Term
 “___________ states that every object continues in a state of rest or in uniform motion in a straight line unless a force disturbs the object.”
Definition
 Newton’s First Law
Term
 “___ is the property that resists a change in position.”
Definition
 Inertia
Term
 “Newton’s ___ Law describes the relationship among force, mass, and acceleration. We need a force to ___ a mass from its resting position. When the mass moves from its point of equilibrium (resting position) it ____. A ___ causes this acceleration. When a force accelerates a mass, ___ between the mass and the ground reduces the net force”
Definition
 Second; push; accelerates; force; friction
Term
 “The force of friction is always ___ that of the moving body, that is, resisting a motion, and can be expressed as Ff = μN where μ is the static or kinetic coefficient of ___ for a given set of materials, N is the normal ____ or (usually) weight pressing one object into another, F is ___, and f is ___ force.”
Definition
 opposite; friction; force; force; frictional
Term
 “___ is a measurement of the amount of matter in an object and is usually quantified in kg on a balance scale “
Definition
 Mass
Term
 “___ is the measurement of the gravitational force that pulls a mass toward earth.”
Definition
 Weight
Term
 Which one is impacted by height or location: weight or mass?
Definition
 weight
Term
 “Newton’s ___ Law is also called the law of action and reaction. When an object A exerts a force on object B, the second object exerts the same force against object A.”
Definition
 Third
Term
 “___ energy is also known as the energy of motion”-What is an example of this kind of energy?
Definition
Term
 -“___ energy is the energy of storage and is not used in motion”-What is an example of this kind of energy?
Definition
 Potential“a rock sitting at the edge of a cliff. While stationary, the rock has potential energy. Once the rock falls off the edge of the cliff it has kinetic energy”
Term
 “The ___________ states that energy cannot be created or destroyed beyond what is already in a system but may be transferred from one place to another or changed from one form to another. ”
Definition
 law of conservation of energy
Term
 “___ is defined as the rate of mechanical energy converted to sound energy, that is, energy/time.”
Definition
 Power
Term
 Inverse Square Law:-“as we double distance from a source, sound energy is reduced by a factor of ___”-“sound intensity = ___/___, or the ___ ___ of a sphere where r = distance from the source”
Definition
 four; sound power/4πr2; surface area
Term
 “Sound intensity from a sound source will obey the Inverse Square Law only if the path of the sound is ___, that is, there are no ___.”
Definition
 unimpeded; barriers
Term
 “The most intense sound that is audible to a normal-hearing human before damage occurs is ___ ___ times greater than the softest sound a human can hear.”
Definition
 100 trillion
Term
 What are the exponents of these numbers?1. 10002. 10,0003. 100,0004. 1,000,000
Definition
 1. 10^32. 10^43. 10^54. 10^6
Term
 What are the answers to these equations?1. 10^6 x 10^3=___2. 10^12/10^2=___
Definition
 1. 10^92. 10^10
Term
 “The reference point for intensity (power/area) “is ___ watts/cm2, which is the lowest intensity a human can hear.”
Definition
 10^–16
Term
 “The maximum intensity that a human can tolerate before there is damage to the hearing mechanism is ___ watt/cm2”
Definition
 10^–2
Term
 -Exponent and logarithms are the ___ ___-“exponent and logarithm are the same as ___ (named after Alexander Graham Bell). For example, if a given ratio = 100,000, then log is __ (equal to the number of zeros) and likewise we have __ bels”
Definition
 same thing; bel; 5; 5
Term
 we convert bel into ___ units; each unit is called a ___. Saying this differently, there are ___ dB in each bel. Therefore, dB = 10 log of the ___ value over the ___ value: measured value/reference value (10^-16)
Definition
 10; decibel (dB); 10; measured; reference
Term
 “The lowest value on the Intensity Level (IL) scale is the ratio of the ___ sound a human can hear compared to the ___, which is also the softest sound a human can hear. In other words, 0 dB IL = 10^–16 watts/cm2/10^–16 watts/cm2 which gives us a ratio of ___”
Definition
 softest; reference; 1:1
Term
 Power = ___ or Pressure =___
Definition
 Pressure^2; √Power
Term
 “As Power is measured at the ___, and sound pressure can be measured ___ by using a microphone and sound measuring device, it is ___ to measure sound pressure rather than sound power. Sound pressure (SP) is measured using a _______”
Definition
 source; anywhere; easier; sound-level meter (SLM)
Term
 "The softest sound the human can hear, expressed in dynes/cm2, is ___ dynes/cm2. The reference in μPa (microPascal) is ___ μPascal/cm2. Therefore, 0 dB SPL =____ dynes/cm2 or ___ μpascal/cm2.”
Definition
 0.0002; 20; 0.0002; 20
Term
 dB SPL=________
Definition
 20 log of a given pressure/reference pressure
Term
 -To double the intensity level at the source we use the formula dB = ______-To double dB SPL you use the equation: _____
Definition
 10 log 2/1; 20 log 2/1
Term
 What are the units for...1. Area2. Velocity3. Acceleration4. Force5. Pressure6. Work7. Power8. Intensity
Definition
 1. cm square and meters squared2. cm/second and meters/second3. cm/sec squared and meters/sec squared4. dynes and newtons5. dyne/cm squared and N/M squared6. cm x dyne (erg) or N x M (joules)7. erg/second or joules/sec8. intensity=power/area and pressure=force/area
Term
 How many ergs does 1 joule equal?
Definition
 10 mllion
Term
 1 watt=1 ____=10^7 ____
Definition
 joule/second; ergs/second
Term
 0.0002 dynes/cm2 =___ μPa/cm2
Definition
 20
Term
 standard acceleration of gravity =___ m/sec2
Definition
 9.8
Term
 speed of sound =___ meters/sec (in air) at standard atmospheric conditions
Definition
 344
Term
 speed of light in a vacuum = 2.9979 × 108 m/sec which equals ___
Definition
 323.773
Term
 -force of 1 pascal =___ newton/m2-force of 1 pound (lb) =___ N
Definition
 1; 4.448
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