# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Chapter 11 - Temporal Analysis
IACA Certification
35
Criminology
Professional
09/05/2014

Term
 Define Temporal Analysis
Definition
 The study of time.
Term
 What are the two reasons we analyze time?
Definition
 1. To understand what has already happened 2. To predict what will happen in the future
Term
 What are the two elements that are typically combined to identify a discrete temporal location?
Definition
 Date and Time.
Term
 What does A.M. stand for?
Definition
 Ante Meridian
Term
 What does P.M. stand for?
Definition
 Post Meridian.
Term
 When electronically stored,Date and Time data are often merged into a single "date/time" field. What are the 3 formats used for storing this data?
Definition
 1. Text field 2. Numeric field 3. A Specialized date/time field type
Term
 Define Temporal Distribution
Definition
 How events are situated throughout the study area in relation to one another.
Term
 What are the 3 classes of distribution?
Definition
 1. Clustered events tend to occur in close proximity to one another. 2. Uniform events tend to occur far apart from one another. 3. Random events are neither clustered nor uniform. (All can apply to geography or time)
Term
 The Nearest Neighbor Test, Ripley's K, and Moran's I are all tests to measure what?
Definition
 Distribution
Term
 What is tempo?
Definition
 Tempo is a measurement of tendency
Term
 What are the 3 types of tempo?
Definition
 1. Acceleration occurs when the interval between events decreases as the number of events decreases 2. Decceleration occurs when the interval between events increases as the number of events increases 3. Stabilization occurs when the interval between events neither increases nor decreases as the number of events increases
Term
 The Least Squares Best Fit method can be applied to a tempogram to calculate what?
Definition
 A trend line.
Term
 Tempo suffers limitations, one of which being that it does not account for terminal velocity.   What is terminal velocity?
Definition
 The fastest rate at which events can occur.
Term
 In order to make sense of an otherwise chaotic tempo or distribution, we look for ________________.
Definition
 Correlations   We look for correlations between the interval and other another variable, such as value of goods obtained.
Term
 Define the type of temporal falacy known as a spurious relationship.
Definition
 A spurious relationship is when two factors have no causal connection, but appear to have one due to a third unknown variable.
Term
 What are the 3 questions an analyst should ask when confronted by an apparent temporal correlation?
Definition
 1. Is the correlation logical? 2. Is the correlation causal? 3. What have you forgotten?
Term
 Interval comparison
Definition
 acceleration, deceleration, and stabilization.
Term
 Tempogram
Definition
 bivariate chart that shows change in time along the x-axis and change in interval on the y-axis.
Term
 Velocity
Definition
 furthest rate between event that can occur
Term
 Correlation
Definition
 overlaying of factors to see if influences the relationship of another. Bivariate analysis
Term
 Frequency analysis
Definition
 the speed with event occur and how many. Is cyclical not linear and based on DOW, DOM, TOD etc.
Term
 Variogram
Definition
 matrix showing change tween measurements and how one event relates to events after.
Term
 Known as "split time"
Definition
 midpoint analysis
Term
 weighted method
Definition
 divide the risk of each crime and then divide the number of hours and add value to each hour as a risk score. Subject to outliers, less arbitrary but can be influenced by timing of cases.
Term
 Things to forecast
Definition
 timing, frequency and duration.
Term
 Types of forecasting
Definition
Term
 Linear forecasting
Definition
 what will happen based on the overall trend.
Term
 Cyclical forecasting
Definition
 repeating patterns based on seasons, months.
Term
Definition
 bi-multivariate - a variable that independently predicts outcome of a dependent variable. (example: amount of \$ taken determines frequency of hits)
Term
 DFT is a form of
Definition
 spectral analysis that breaks down a signal and subjects it analysis to identify regular cycles. The cycles determine specific frequency,amplitude and regularity.
Term
 In forecasting ___________ are totally predictable
Definition
 linear systems
Term
 Linear forecasts
Definition
 extrapoliate what will happen based on an overall trend (line) that is drawn from the past to the present and carried on into the future.
Term
 Linear timing forecasts
Definition
 based on intervals between cases, the ability to guess the probable interval from the last known case to the next/future case.
Term
 Both _______ and _______ are linked and need to consider one with the other when conducting analysis.
Definition
 space and time
Term
 Crime will have both _____ and _______ and it will have ___________.
Definition
 temporal, spatial and duration.
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