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Chapter 10
Final Exam Study Guide
107
Fitness
Undergraduate 2
05/02/2012

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Term
Emotion
Definition
A rapid appraisal of the personal significance of a situation, which prepares you for action.
Term
Functionalist Approach to Emotion
Definition
Emphasizes the broad function of emotions as energizing behavior to attain personal goals.
Term
Emotions serve different functions in different situations. For ex, in infants, emotions may communicate: (4 things)
Definition
-Feelings of fear when a stranger approaches
-Desire for contact with parents
-Happiness when parents are nearby
Term
Basic emotions
Definition
Emotions inferred from facial expressions; examples include happiness, interest, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, and disgust.
Term
List infants' basic observed emotions at birth.
Definition
Distress, disgust, startled
Term
List infants' basic observed emotions at 4-6 weeks.
Definition
Social smile is added
Term
List infants' basic observed emotions at 3-4 months.
Definition
Anger, surprise, and sadness are all added.
Term
List infants' basic observed emotions at 6-8 months.
Definition
Fear is added.
Term
List infants' basic observed emotions at age 2.
Definition
Contempt and guilt are added.
Term
Happiness in infants is inferred from social smiles, and later from __________.
Definition
laughter
Term
Smiles of infants begin as random events, but are shaped by _________.
Definition
caregivers
Term
Social smiles in infants begin at _-_ weeks.
Definition
4-6
Term
By _ months, babies smile most when interacting with others.
Definition
3
Term
_ to _ months- laughter, typically in response to active stimuli.
Definition
3-4
Term
_ months- expressions of happiness become very selective.
Definition
6
Term
In neonates, anger is observed through their '__________'.
Definition
distress
Term
Anger increases in frequency and intensity across the _____ year of life.
Definition
first
Term
Anger in babies is often a result of ___________.
Definition
frustration
Term
Expressions of sadness in babies are evident, but ____ frequent than anger and other emotions.
Definition
less
Term
Sadness in babies is most common when there is a separation from or hampered relationship with ________ ________.
Definition
primary cargeivers
Term
Sadness is also common when there is little or no _______ ________.
Definition
sensitive caregiving
Term
Sad babies are very common among those with _________ mothers.
Definition
depressed
Term
_____ in babies is rare in early months.
Definition
Fear
Term
Fear in babies increases... when?
Definition
During the 2nd half of the first year.
Term
Stranger anxiety
Definition
Fear directed towards adults; appears at about 7 months and declines during toddler years.
Term
Separation anxiety
Definition
Fear in babies involving primary caregivers; appears after 6 months and is related to security of relationships with caregiver; depends on context and coping strategies too.
Term
Self-conscious emotions
Definition
Emotions that result from injury to or enhancement of one's self-concept.
Term
Give a few examples of some self-conscious motions.
Definition
Guilt, shame, pride, or envy.
Term
Self-con. emotions typically emerge when?
Definition
During toddler and preschool years (2+ yrs) and become stronger after that.
Term
In preschool years, they display some of these only...
Definition
in the presence of adults.
Term
At age 6, they may guilt even when the action was _________.
Definition
accidental
Term
In ________ childhood, kids report appropriate emotions even if no adult is present; and they do not feel guilt over accidental wrong-doings.
Definition
middle
Term
Newborns have little tolerance for ___________ ____________. They cannot yet regulate their emotional states and are easily overwhelmed.
Definition
external stimulation
Term
Babies become more tolerant of stimulation between _ and _ months.
Definition
2 and 4
Term
By _ to _ months, infants gain more emotional control and can shift attention and engage in self-soothing.
Definition
4 to 6
Term
1-year-olds who are mobile can ________ and ________ from stimuli, allowing them more emotional regulation.
Definition
approach and stimuli
Term
Parents who read and respond to their infants' cues generally have infants who are...
Definition
Less fussy, more positive, easier to soothe.
Term
Parents who respond angrily or impatiently or wait too long to intervene when an infant is upset generally have infants who...
Definition
Cannot self-soothe and are harder to soothe.
Term
vocabulary for feelings develop rapidly after age __ months.
Definition
18
Term
Toddlers whose parents are emotionally sympathetic but set limits (e.g., in tantrums)generally can control their ______ and have better ________ _______.
Definition
anger, social skills
Term
By age 3 to 4, children verbalize several emotional self-regulation strategies (e.g., talking to themselves or changing their goals).
Definition
3 to 4
Term
Preschoolers learn to cope with their emotions by watching others, especially their ________.
Definition
parents
Term
______ become very common in early childhood due to improved imaginations and difficult grasping the differences between appearances and reality.
Definition
Fears
Term
Between ages _ and _, children restrict their emotional expressions when alone.
Definition
6 and 8
Term
List some common fears during middle childhood.
Definition
Academics, social rejection, possible personal harm, threats to parents, and media events. (e.g., 9/11)
Term
Cultural factors influence the ________ of children's fears.
Definition
content
Term
By age __, children shift between problem-centered and emotion-centered coping.
Definition
10
Term
Rules that dictate which emotions are appropriate for various situations.
Definition
Emotional display rules
Term
Emotional display rules are first evident at age _.
Definition
2
Term
Emotional display rules are set by a person's ________.
Definition
culture
Term
Emotional display rules are not fully developed until when?
Definition
middle childhood
Term
School-aged children can demonstrate this- known as showing one emotion when feeling another (typically the opposite).
Definition
Masking
Term
Infants can recognize differences in emotions as early as _ months.
Definition
4
Term
Infants in one famous study concerning emotions did what?
Definition
Looked longer at joyful expressions than at neutral or angry expressions.
Term
What was a common argument about the results from the infant emotion experiment where they looked longer at the happy expressions?
Definition
Some say that babies prefer happy faces because the expression of joy is important for young infants and that this corresponds nicely with the development of the infants' own emotions (joy first, then anger later).
Term
There is a strong relationship between the ability to ____ and to ________ emotional expressions.
Definition
give, recognize
Term
Those who are skilled senders of emotional expressions are better at __________ them as well.
Definition
identifying
Term
The ability to detect different emotions and take another's perspective, feeling what they feel.
Definition
Empathy
Term
Requires self-awareness and develops just before or at age 2, after which children may not only recognize others' feelings but may attempt to relieve another person's unhappiness... these efforts are behavioral at first, and become verbal later.
Definition
"True empathy"
Term
Newborns cry when other babies cry, but probably not due to __________ _________.
Definition
"Perspective taking"
Term
Children typically experience a dramatic increase in empathy during _______ __________.
Definition
middle childhood
Term
By __________, empathy may extend beyond personal or immediate situation to include concerns about life conditions of others (even strangers).
Definition
adolescence
Term
Individual and stable differences in how one approaches and responds to other people and situations.
Definition
Temperament
Term
Who developed the different dimensions of temperament in 1977?
Definition
Thomas and Chess
Term
How many dimensions did Thomas and Chess develop?
Definition
9
Term
List a few of the nine dimensions of temperament.
Definition
Activity level, distractibility, adaptability, intensity of reaction, and quality of mood.
Term
The dimensions of temperament appear to be present... when?
Definition
at birth
Term
Who revised the early model and produced seven dimensions, which were supported by factor analysis research?
Definition
A guy named Rothbart
Term
How is temperament typically measured?
Definition
Through interviews/surveys of parents as well as behavioral ratings by those familiar with the child and by researchers.
Term
Parents' ratings are often biased by...
Definition
their own pre-birth expectations, mental health, etc.
Term
Researchers' ratings rely on...
Definition
smaller pieces of information.
Term
What two types of children has pychophysiological research focused on?
Definition
Inhibited ("shy") children and uninhibited ("sociable") children.
Term
Infants' temperaments are relatively unstable until about age __.
Definition
3
Term
What are the influences on temperament?
Definition
Genetics, immediate environment, and cultural values.
Term
Infants who exhibit "interest" and "persistence" often exhibit...
Definition
improved learning and cognitive abilities later in life.
Term
Children who are distractible, highly active, and difficult in temperatment often exhibit...
Definition
poor academic achievement later.
Term
Preschoolers with high levels of activity may become more sociable but also...
Definition
experience more peer conflict.
Term
Preschoolers who are very shy later may exhibit anxiety and avoid social situations, but they...
Definition
are rarely aggressive.
Term
Children who are both irritable and impulsive typically...
Definition
exhibit more aggression.
Term
The influences of temperament on behavior is mediated by...so these "outcomes" may vary from child to child.
Definition
others' responses
Term
Researchers believe that the fit between a child's temperament and his or her environment is very important- this is called the ________ __ ___ model.
Definition
goodness of fit
Term
Parents generally find it easier to adapt to a child's temperament than to...
Definition
force the child to adapt to his or her environment.
Term
Parents often adapt better once they realize that temperament is ______ and not a result of parenting or home life.
Definition
inborn
Term
_________ is a strong emotional bond between a child and a caregiver.
Definition
Attachment
Term
At birth, infants typically have...
Definition
An attraction to all social objects (preference for humans over inanimate objects)
Term
Within first few days, infants...
Definition
learn to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar people (usually voices).
Term
At 3 months...
Definition
the infant smiles more at his mother than at a stranger.
Term
By 6 months...
Definition
the infant may cry when mother leaves.
Term
Once they can crawl or walk...
Definition
infants may crawl to their mother's side in an unfamiliar situation.
Term
What is the psychoanalytic theory created by Freud and supported by Erikson?
Definition
Infants develop an attachment because their mother satisfies the infant's need for oral gratification through feeding rituals. Thus, caregiving (feeding) is the crucial determinant of the infant's attachment pattern.
Term
The caregiver becomes valuable to the infant because...
Definition
he or she reduces the infant's hunger drive.
Term
Children become attached to their mother because she becomes associated with a pleasurable stimulus (feeding). This is also known as...?
Definition
Classical conditioning
Term
Who conducted the experiment with the baby monkeys that took the emphasis away from feeding it and placing it instead on the "contact comfort" that infants receive from caregivers?
Definition
Harlow
Term
This is also supported by evidence that infants and children...
Definition
can develop attachments to others who are not involved in routine care (feeding, etc.).
Term
Conclusion: The key to learning theory perspective is...
Definition
attachment forms with those people who most reliably provide the infant with external stimulant (including visual, auditory and tactile).
Term
Focuses on the reciprocal interaction between child and caregiver, with primary emphasis on the biological preparation infants have to elicit, caregiving behaviors, and on the issue of species survival.
Definition
Ethological Theory
Term
Who came up with the Ethological Theory?
Definition
Bowlby
Term
Infants are programmed with instincts that elicit caregiving, and mothers are programmed to...
Definition
respond to the infant's behaviors.
Term
The Ethological Theory is unique in its involvement of both the _____ and ___________.
Definition
child and caregiver
Term
The development of the attachment involved relies on ___-____ interactions.
Definition
two-way
Term
It is also unique in its emphasis on innate, ___-_________ responses.
Definition
pre-programmed
Term
What 3 stages did Bowlby identify in his Attachment Process?
Definition
1. Preattachment Phase
2. Attachment-in-the-Making Phase
3. Clear-cut Attachment Phase
Term
When does the Preattachment phase occur?
Definition
From birth to 6 weeks
Term
When does the Attachment-in-the-Making Phase occur?
Definition
6 weeks to 6-8 months
Term
When does the Clear-cut Attachment Phase occur?
Definition
6-8 weeks to 1 1/2-2 years
Term
Two critical precursors to the development of an attachment are...?
Definition
Stimulation, sense of control over the environment
Term
Infants become attached not only to adults who feed and take care of them, but instead to those who...?
Definition
respond quickly to their needs (creating a sense of control) and who initiate interactions with the infant(providing stimulation).
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