# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Chapter 10
Simple Harmonic Motion & Elasticity
42
Physics
03/15/2015

Term
 unstrained length
Definition
 the length of a spring when there is no applied push or pull
Term
 What are the units for the spring constant "k"?
Definition
 force per unit length (N/m)
Term
 ideal spring
Definition
 a spring that behaves according toFx*applied* = k(x)
Term
 Sometimes the spring constant "k" is referred to as the _____ of the spring
Definition
 stiffness
Term
 A large value for "k" means that the spring is _____, in the sense that a large force is required to stretch or compress it
Definition
 stiff
Term
 The reaction force applied to the object attached to the spring is also called a _____
Definition
 restoring force
Term
 simple harmonic motion
Definition
 when the restoring force has the mathematical form given byFx = -k(x); a type of friction-free motion
Term
 sinusoidal
Definition
 a graph that has the shape of a trigonometric sine or cosine function
Term
 Can the restoring force lead to simple harmonic motion when the object is attached to a vertical spring or a horizontal spring?
Definition
 yes!
Term
 frequency
Definition
 the number of cycles of motion per second
Term
 period
Definition
 the time required to complete one cycle
Term
 Is the velocity of an object in simple harmonic motion constant?
Definition
 no! (it varies between maximum & minimum values as time passes)
Term
 Is there acceleration in simple harmonic motion?
Definition
 yes!
Term
 elastic potential energy
Definition
 the potential energy that a spring has when it is stretched or compressed
Term
 SI unit of elastic potential energy
Definition
 joule (J)
Term
 simple pendulum
Definition
 a particle of mass "m" attached to a frictionless pivot "P" by a cable of length "L" and negligible mass
Term
 physical pendulum
Definition
 when the object on the pendulum is a rigid extended object
Term
 damped harmonic motion
Definition
 motion that has an oscillation amplitude that decreases as time passes due to the presence of energy dissipation; the decrease in amplitude is the "damping"
Term
 critical damping
Definition
 the smallest degree of damping that completely eliminates the oscillations; the motion is said to be critically damped
Term
 overdamped
Definition
 when the damping exceeds the critical value
Term
 underdamped
Definition
 when the damping is less than the critical level; opposite of overdamped
Term
 driven harmonic motion
Definition
 the motion that results from a force being applied to stretch or compress a spring that is applied at all times, not just for a brief initial moment
Term
 driving force
Definition
 the force that causes driven harmonic motion
Term
 natural frequency
Definition
 the frequency of the spring system; the frequency at which the spring system naturally oscillates
Term
 resonance
Definition
 the condition in which a time-dependent force can transmit a large amount of energy to an oscillating object, leading to a large-amplitude motion; in the absence of damping, resonance occurs when the frequency of the force matches a natural frequency at which the object will oscillate
Term
 Materials that return to their original form after becoming distorted due to squeezing/stretching are said to be _____
Definition
 elastic
Term
 The value of Young's modulus depends on the _____
Definition
 nature of the material
Term
 Forces that are applied & cause stretching are called ____ forces, because they create a tension in the material
Definition
 tensile
Term
 In any situation where a cable is used to apply a force to an object, the _____ is stretched
Definition
 cable
Term
 The value of the shear modulus "S" depends on the _____
Definition
 nature of the material
Term
 The tensile force is _____ to the surface, whereas the shearing force is _____ the surface
Definition
 perpendicular; parallel
Term
 Young's modulus refers to a _____ of one dimension of a solid object as a result of tensile or compressive forces
Definition
 change in length
Term
 The shear modulus refers to a _____ of a solid object as a result of shearing forces
Definition
 change in shape
Term
 Is pressure a scalar or vector quantity?
Definition
 scalar
Term
 SI unit of pressure
Definition
 N/m^2 (pascal) (Pa)
Term
 The value of the bulk modulus depends on _____
Definition
 the nature of the material
Term
 Hooke's Law for Stress & Strain
Definition
 stress is directly proportional to strain
Term
 SI unit of stress
Definition
 newton per square meter (N/m^2) (pascal) (Pa)
Term
 SI unit of strain
Definition
 it is unitless!
Term
 proportionality limit
Definition
 the point on the stress vs. strain graph where the material begins to deviate from straight-line behavior
Term
 If the stress does not exceed the _____ of the material, the object will return to its original size & shape once the stress is removed
Definition
 elastic limit
Term
 elastic limit
Definition
 the point beyond which the object no longer returns to its size & shape when the stress is removed; the object remains permanently deformed
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