Term
What is the radius of an atom? 

Definition


Term
What is the radius of a nucleus? 

Definition


Term

Definition


Term

Definition
Nuclides with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons. 


Term

Definition
Nuclides with the same number of neutrons but different number of protons. 


Term

Definition
Nuclides with same atomic mass number, A, but different numbers of protons and neutrons 


Term

Definition
Nuclides with the same number of protons and neutrons existing in different nuclear energy states 


Term
^{A}_{Z}X
What are A, Z, and X? 

Definition
A = atomic mass number (P + N) Z = atomic number (P)
X = chemical symbol 


Term
^{131m}_{54}Xe
What does 'm' stand for? 

Definition
Metastable state
Ex:^{ 131m}_{54}Xe is an isomer of ^{13154}Xe. 


Term
Describe the N/P curve of stable nuclei. 

Definition
For lowZ nuclei, N/P ~ 1 For higherZ (>20) nuclei, N/P > 1, and increases with Z 


Term
A. How many stable nuclei exist? B. What percentage of stable nuclei are eveneven nuclei? C. What percentage have even Z, odd N?
D. What percentage have odd Z, even N?
E. How many oddodd nuclei are stable? What are they? 

Definition
A. ~300 B. >50%
C. ~20%
D. ~20%
E. 4 (^{2}_{1}H , ^{6}_{3}Li , ^{10}_{5}B , ^{14}_{7}N) 


Term
A. What does 'amu' stand for?
B. What is the traditional definition of 1 amu?
C. 1 amu = _______ kg? D. A mass expressed in amu is also known as what? (2 answers) 

Definition
A. amu = atomic mass unit
B. 1 amu is equal to the 1/12 the mass of a ^{12}_{6}C atom
C. 1 amu = 1.66 x 10^{27} kg
D. atomic mass or atomic weight 


Term
Define gramatomic weight. 

Definition
The mass of a substance in grams equal to the atomic weight of that substance
Ex: The gramatomic weight of ^{12}_{6}C is 12g. 


Term
A. What does Avogadro's law state?
B. What is the symbol for Avogadro's Number? C. What does Avogadro's Number equal? 

Definition
A. Avogadro's law states that the gramatomic weight of any atom (subatomic particle, molecule, etc.) contains the same number of atoms, and that number is Avogadro's Number.
B. N_{A}
C. N^{A} = 6.0228 x 10^{23} 


Term
A. Electron = ______ amu
B. Proton = ______ amu
C. Neutron = ______ amu 

Definition
A. Electron = 0.000548 amu
B. Proton = 1.00727 amu
C. Neutron = 1.00866 amu 


Term
A. Why does the mass of an atom not equal the sum of the masses of its constituents?
B. What is this difference in mass called? (2 answers) 

Definition
A. The mass of an atom does not equal the sum of the masses of its constituents because a certain mass is converted into energy that acts as the "glue" that holds the constituents together.
B. This is known as the mass defect or the binding energy of the nucleus. 


Term
A. What is the SI unit for energy? B. What is the mechanical definition of this unit? 

Definition
A. Joule, J
B. A joule is defined as the work done when a force of 1N (1N = 1kg*m/s^{2}) acts through a distance of 1 m.
1J = 1N*m = 1kg*m^{2}/s^{2} 


Term
A. What is an electronvolt, eV?
B. 1 ev = ______ J 

Definition
A. An eV is the kinetic energy acquired by an electron as it passes through a potential difference of 1V.
B. 1 eV = 1V x 1.602 x 10^{19}C = 1.602 x 10^{19}J 


Term
A. What is the symbol for the speed of light?
B. What is the speed of light in m/s? 

Definition
A. Speed of light, c
B. c = 2.998 x 10^{8} m/s 


Term
A. What is Einstein's Principle of Mass and Energy? B. What formula is associated with this principle? 

Definition
A. Einstein's Principle of Mass and Energy states that mass and energy are interconvertible.
B. E = mc^{2} 


Term
A. The mass of a particle at rest can be described in terms of its energy equivalent. What is the symbol for energy equivalent? B. What is the energy equivalent of 1 amu? 

Definition
A. Energy equivalent, E_{0}
B. 1 amu = 931 MeV 


Term
A. What is the mass of an electron (m_{e}) in kg?
B. What is the energy equivalent of an electron at rest? 

Definition
A. m_{e} = 9.1 x 10^{31} kg
B. E_{0,e} = 0.511 MeV 


Term
Masses of particles can also be expressed in GeV/c^{2}.
1 GeV/c^{2} = _____ amu 

Definition


Term
A. In 1913, Neils Bohr proposed an atomic model. Describe this model.
B. This model is essentially a quantum interpretation of what preexisting atomic model? 

Definition
A. Electrons revolve around the nucleus of an atom in definite orbits (corresponding to definite energy levels) and are prevented from leaving the atom by the centripetal force of attraction between the positively charged nucleus and the negatively charged electrons.
B. The Rutherford model, proposed in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford. 


Term
A. What is Planck's constant?
B. What is the symbol for Planck's constant? C. What is Planck's constant equal to? 

Definition
A. Planck's constant describes the sizes of 'quanta' in quantum mechanics.
B. Planck's constant, h
C. h = 6.626 x 10^{34} J*s 


Term
A. What formula determines the maximum number of electrons in a particular shell?
B. Give the symbol and maximum number of orbital electrons for each shell (n = 15) 

Definition
A. 2n^{2}
B. (1) K, 2 electrons
(2) L, 8 electrons
(3) M, 18 electrons
(4) N, 32 electrons
(5) O, 50 electrons 


Term
Electronic orbits can also be considered energy levels.
A. What is the corresponding energy?
B. With an opposite sign, this energy is equal to ______. 

Definition
A. The energy level of an atomic orbit corresponds to that electron's potential energy.
B. With an opposite sign, the potential energy of an orbital electron is equal to the binding energy, E_{B}, of that electron. 


Term
[image]
What is this type of diagram called?


Definition


Term
As atomic number increases, the binding energy of electrons in a given energy level tend to ______. 

Definition
Increase.
Binding energy is proportional to the coulombic force of attraction between the nucleus and the electron. As Z increases, so does the magnitude of the nucleus' positive charge. 


Term
A. The electrons of which shell are primarily responsible for forming chemical bonds? B. Electrons in this shell are called ______. 

Definition
A. The outer shell
B. Valence electrons 


Term
A. Describe the process of optical radiation.
B. Which electrons are involved in the emission of optical radiation? 

Definition
A. Optical radiation occurs when an orbital electron is excited (gains energy). This excited electron is unstable, and as it falls back to its ground state, a photon of energy equal to the energy difference between the states is emitted.
B. Valence electrons are typically associated with optical radiation. 


Term
A. When are characteristic xrays given off?
B. Why are these xrays 'characteristic'? 

Definition
A. Characteristic xrays are given off when an ejected innershell electron is replaced by an electron from an outer shell. When the replacing electron falls to an inner shell, a photon of energy equal to the difference between the binding energies of the shells is emitted.
B. These photons are 'characteristic' because the binding energies of electrons orbiting a particular nuclide are characteristic of that nuclide. Thus, the characteristic xrays emitted from a nuclide exist in only a small number of energies. 


Term
What are the four forces of nature, in order of strength? 

Definition
1. Strong Nuclear Force
2. Electromagnetic Force
3. Weak Nuclear Force 4. Gravitational Force 


Term
A. What is waveparticle duality?
B. What physicist proposed the idea, and in what year? 

Definition
A. Waveparticle duality says that electromagnetic waves can behave like particles (i.e. exhibit momentum). A discrete electromagnetic wave behaving like a particle is called a photon. Conversely, particles sometimes act like waves (i.e. exhibit refraction).
B. Waveparticle duality was proposed by Louis de Broglie in 1925. 


Term
Elementary Particles can broadly be divided into what two types? 

Definition
Fermions constituents of matter
Bosons force carriers 


Term
What is an electromagnetic wave? 

Definition
An electromagnetic wave is a pair of oscillating electric (x direction) and magnetic (y direction) fields and travels in the zdirection (normal to both the electric and magnetic fields) at the speed of light. 


Term
What formula describes an electromagnetic wave? Give the units of each variable in the equation. 

Definition
c = νλ
c, speed of light = 2.998 x 10^{8} m/s
ν, frequency (s^{1}, hertz)
λ, wavelength (m)



Term
To explain certain phenomena, such as the photoelectric effect and compton scattering, one must consider the electromagnetic wave to be particulate.
What formula describes a photon? 

Definition
E = hν
E, energy
h, Planck's constant = 6.626 x 10^{34} J*s
ν, frequency (s^{1}, hertz) 


Term
The N/P values that result in stable nuclei are said to lie in what? 

Definition


Term
A. In 1897, British physicist Sir J.J. Thomson proposed an atomic model. Briefly describe his theory.
B. This model is often referred to as ______. 

Definition
A. Thomson proposed that the atom consisted of electrons moving in constant motion inside a positivelycharged medium.
B. the plum pudding model. 


Term
In 1911, Ernest Rutherford proposed an atomic model. Describe this model. 

Definition
Rutherford proposed that, unlike in Thomson's plum pudding model, electrons revolve around a dense core of positive charge (the nucleus). He likened the electronic orbits to the planets orbiting the sun. 


Term
Quantum Mechanics Principles
A. Are the energy levels of orbital electrons discrete or continuous?
B. How are all orbital electrons defined?
C. In a single atom, no two electrons _______.
D. Name three of the physicists who independently proposed these principles. 

Definition
A. discrete
B. All orbital electrons are defined by a set of quantum numbers (n, l, m_{l}, m_{s}).
C. ...can have the same set of quantum numbers. This is known as the Pauli exclusion principle (Wolfgang Pauli, 1925).
D.
(1) Wolfgang Pauli (2) Erwin Schrodinger
(3) Werner Heisenberg 


Term
Describe the four quantum numbers. For each, give the name, symbol, meaning, and range of values. 

Definition
(1) Principle quantum number, n
Corresponds to the shell (K=1, L=2, etc)
1 < n < 6
(2) Orbital quantum number, l
Corresponds to the subshell (s=0, p=1, d=2, f=3, g=4)
0 < l < n1
(3) Magnetic quantum number, m_{l}
Corresponds to the specific orbit within the subshell
l < m_{l} < l
(4) Spin quantum number, m_{s}
Corresponds to the spin of the electron
s = 1/2 (clockwise) , 1/2 (counterclockwise) 


Term
A. Sort the following types of electromagnetic waves in order of increasing frequency:
infrared, microwaves, radar, radio, tv, ultraviolet, visible light, xrays
B. What wavelengths correspond to the range of visible light? 

Definition
A.
(1) radio
(2) tv (3) radar (4) microwaves
(5) infrared
(6) visible light
(7) ultraviolet
(8) xrays
B. 4 x 10^{7}m (Blue) > 7 x 10^{7}m (Red) 

