Term

Definition
hypothetical factor that cannot be observed directly but is inferred from certain behaviours and is assumed to follow from certain circumstances mental rotation task  determined construct (visual imagery) by measuring response time 


Term
how to evaluate measures (2) 

Definition
1. reliability (repeatable) inverse relationship with measurement error (observed score approximates true score) 2. validity (measures what its designed to) assumes reliability 


Term
types of validity in testing measurement (5) 

Definition
1. content 2. criterion 3. construct 4. convergent 5. discriminant 


Term
def: content validity + eg 

Definition
test items "make sense" in terms of construct (NOT face validity  seems valid to test takers) eg heart rate to measure performance anxiety 


Term
def: criterion validity + eg 

Definition
accurately forecasts future behavoir eg GRE should predict future success in grad students 


Term
def: construct validity + eg 

Definition
whether test adequately measures a construct (operational definition = important) eg IQ test measures intelligence 


Term
def: convergent validity + eg 

Definition
scores on a test are designed to measure one construct are correlated with s cores on another test theoretically related to the construct eg written langage scores + language comprehension scores 


Term
def: discriminant validity + eg 

Definition
scores on a test designed to measure one construct are UNrelated with scores on another test theoretically UNrelated to the construct eg spatial reasoning scores + problem solving scores 


Term

Definition
used for group classification, categorical data eg gender 


Term

Definition
rankings, ordering is meaningful but metric is not eg 1st 2nd 3rd in a race 


Term

Definition
equal interval rankings, arbitrary 0 eg temperature 


Term

Definition
equal interval rankings with a true zero, each increase reflects the same change in the underlying measure eg height 


Term
define: population/sample 

Definition
1. all members of a defined group 2. subset of population 


Term
define: descriptive/inferential statistics 

Definition
1. summarize data 2. draw conclusions  applied to broader population 


Term
descriptive stats: measures of central tendency (3) 

Definition
1. mean: Xhat = sumX/N 2. mode: most frequent score 3. median: location = (n+1)/2. use if outliers! 


Term
descriptive stats: measures of variability (4) 

Definition
1. range: highest  lowest score 2. standard deviation  sq of E(xhatx)^2/(n1). estimate average deviation from mean 3. variance. sd^2. important for anova 4. IQR. range 25th75th percentile  use if outliers 


Term

Definition
1. no diference between puplations > reject/fail to reject 2. researchers prediction 


Term

Definition
probability that research outcome is due to chance 


Term

Definition
reject null hypothesis when it is true likelihood = alpha think you have a real effect when you dont 


Term

Definition
fail to reject null hypothesis when it is right dont find significant effect in the sample when there is one in the population possibly due to unreliable/insensitive measures 


Term
structure of analysis of significance 

Definition
(systematic variance + error variance)/error variance 

