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CFRN Transport and Altitude Considerations
Study Questions from ASTNA Study Book
50
Nursing
Professional
01/23/2014

Term
 The combined weight of all atmospheric gases creating a forced upon the surface of the earth result in a force known as: A) pressureB) gravityC) ramD) gravitational forces
Definition
 B) Gravity is the result of the combined weight of all atmospheric gases creating a force of upon the surface of the earth. Source of ram is one of the atmospheric functions. Gravitational forces are the force the person exerts when seated in direct response to a gravitational force.
Term
 Pressure altitudes are flown over the continental U.S. above _____ feet and are known as "flight levels". A) 10,000B) 15,000C) 18,000D) 25,000
Definition
 C) Pressured altitudes are flown over the continental U.S. above 18,000 feet and are referred to as flight levels.
Term
 At 10,000-15,000 feet, night vision is reduced by: A) 15%B) 25%C) 35%D) 50%
Definition
 D) Night vision is reduced by 50% at 10,000-15,000 feet
Term
 What is the formula for Henry's formula?
Definition
 P1/A1=P2/A2
Term
 What is the formula for Boyle's formula?
Definition
 P1V1=P2V2
Term
 What is the formula for Dalton's formula?
Definition
 Pt=P1+P2+P3...Pn
Term
 What is the formula for Charles' formula?
Definition
 V1/V2=T1/T2
Term
 Barometric pressure at sea level is 760 mmHg. What is the partial pressure of oxygen at sea level? A) 160B) 593C) 7D) 760
Definition
 A) Partial pressure is calculated as: oxygen concentration x barometric pressure = oxygen parcel pressure. 21.95% × 760 = 159.22
Term
 In which zone is a pressurized cabin mandatory? A) physiological zoneB) physiologically deficient zoneC) partial space equivalent zoneD) space equivalent zone
Definition
 C) Partial space equivalent zone is similar to space and a pressurized environment is mandatory. The physiological zone is where most humans can adapt. Physiologically deficient zone is where symptoms of altitude began to appear.
Term
 At 30,000 feet what is the average time of useful consciousness (TUC)? A) 30 minutesB) 3-5 minutesC) 1-2 minutesD) 15-30 minutes
Definition
 C) The time of useful consciousness (TUC) or Effective Performance Time (EPT) is the period of time between the interaction of oxygen supply or exposure to an oxygen-for environment and time when a pilot work crew member is unable to perform flying duties effectively. At 30,000 feet TUC is 1-2 minutes.
Term
 At 15,000-20,000 feet you would expect oxygen saturation to be____ without supplemental oxygen.A) 90-98%B) 80-90%C) 70-80%D) 60-70%
Definition
 C) oxygen saturation will be between 70 to 80% at this altitude, which is where the disturbance stage of hypoxia occurs
Term
 During ascent a pressure differential is achieved in the middle ear with which of the following?A) every 100-500 feetB) every 500-1000 feetC) a pressure differential is only achieved during decent pressureD) none of the above
Definition
 B) as pressure in the middle ear increases, the eardrum bulges outward until a differential pressure is achieved (every 500 to 1000 feet of ascent) and a small amount of gas is forced out through the eustachian to, and the eardrum relaxes
Term
 During flight your patient starts complaining of severe pain above his eyebrows and to his cheek areas. He also develops a nosebleed. What is the most likely cause?A) barosinusitisB) barogastralgiaC) barotitis mediaD) barodontalgia
Definition
 A) symptoms of barosinusitis include severe pain to the sinus is, possible epistaxis, and possible referred pain to teeth. Barogastralgia can cause N/V, belching, flatulence, and abdominal pain. Barotitis media can cause your fullness, tinnitus, pain, possible bleeding, decreased hearing, and vertigo. Barodontalgia causes severe to pain.
Term
 You are transporting a patient by fixed wing. The plane is at 22,000 feet when the compression oh corps. What is your TUC?A) 1-2 minutesB) 3-5 minutesC) 3-5 minutesD) 15-30 minutes
Definition
 C) at 22,000 feet Time of Useful Consciousness (TUC) is 5-10 minutes. Rapid decompression can reduce TUC by 50%. At 25,000 feet you have 3-5 minutes. At 30,000 feet TUC is 1-2 minutes and under 20,000 feet TUC is 30 minutes or more.
Term
 Which of the following is NOT a type of decompression sickness?A) bendsB) chokesC) creepsD) stutters
Definition
 D) the four types of bends (limb pain); the chokes (respiratory disturbances), the creeps (paresthesia), and the staggers (neurological)
Term
 Diving to a depth of____feet will cause the body to absorb twice the amount of nitrogen normally present.A) 20B) 30C) 40D) 50
Definition
 B) diving to a depth of about 30 feet will cause the body to absorb twice the nitrogen normally present
Term
 For every ____ foot increase in altitude, atmospheric temperature decreases 2°C.A) 330B) 500C) 1000D) 1500
Definition
 C) atmospheric temperature decreases 2°C for each 1000 feet increase in altitude
Term
 Which the fact will you see with positive gravitational forces?A) pooling of blood in the upper bodyB) headachesC) dizzinessD) increased intravascular pressures
Definition
 D) positive gravitational forces cause blood pooling in lower extremities, increased intravascular pressures, and stagnant hypoxia. Negative gravitational forces cause stagnant hypoxia, blood pooling in the upper body, and headaches.
Term
 The transport crew member knows that the permissible unprotected exposure time to 96 decibels is:A) 8 hoursB) 4 hoursC) 1 hourD) never permissible
Definition
 C)the time of permissible unprotected exposure time to 96 decibels is 1 hour. For each for db increase above 80 db, that time limit for daily exposure is reduced by ½.
Term
 What is the limit and decibels that your plugs are defective protection?A) 80 dbB) 95 dbC) 105 dbD) 115 db
Definition
 B) ear plugs work best for reduction of low frequency noise and are very effective to 115 db
Term
 Which system is responsible for perception of movement and orientation?A) visual systemB) destibular systemC) somatosensory systemD) proprioceptive system
Definition
 B) the vestibular system controls motion, balance, gravity-sensing organs with the inner ear and is responsible for perception of motion and orientation. The visual is the most reliable system. Somatosensory and Proprioceptibe system are the same and responsible for perception of position and movement of the body.
Term
 Stresses may be categorized in five basic types. Which of the following is NOT one of the types?A) physicalB) psychologicalC) metaphysicalD) pathological
Definition
 C) stresses may be categorized in five basic types as follows: physical, psychological, physiological, psychosocial, pathological.
Term
 At what altitude with the transport crew expect to see a belligerence, euphoria, sleepiness, and slowed thinking as an occurrence without supplemental oxygen?A) 5000 feetB) 10,000 feetC) 15,000 feetD) 20,000 feet
Definition
 C)at 15,000 feet symptoms of belligerence, euphoria, sleepiness, and slowed thinking may be seen as a result of altitude effects on the body.
Term
 You are transporting a patient who is on 60% face mask. You pick the patient up at 2500 feet (693 mmHg) and you will be transporting with a maximum altitude of 7000 feet (586 mmHg) by helicopter. What concentration of 02 will be needed during transport by air to maintain the same oxygen saturation during flight?A) 80%B) 71%C) 60%D) 51%
Definition
 B)71% oxygen will be needed during transport to maintain the same saturation that the patient had at the beginning of the transport on the 60% mask. FIO2 X BP1 ÷ BP2 (0.6 X 693 ÷ 586) = 71
Term
 Which of the following is not a normal symptom of high altitude hypoxia?A) dizzinessB) headachesC) chest painD) blurred vision
Definition
 C) as altitude and hypoxia increase, a person can expect to have symptoms of apprehension, blurred or double vision, night vision decreases, dizziness, headache, sleepiness, nausea, tingling, numbness, hot and/or cold flashes, euphoria, and belligerence
Term
 Which of the following statements best summarizes Henry's Law?A) the sum total of the partial pressures is equal to total atmospheric pressureB) the amount of gas in the solution is proportional to the partial pressure of gas above the solutionC) a pressure of a gas is directly proportional to its temperature with the volume remaining constantD) at a constant temperature, a given volume of gas is inversely proportional to the pressures surrounding the gas
Definition
 B) Henry's Law, also known as the Law of Gases in Solution, states that the amount of gas in solution is proportional to the partial pressure of that gas over the solution. This law can be seen in the transfer of gas between the alveoli and the blood.
Term
 Decompression sickness is an example of which of the following gas laws?A) Henry's LawB) Boyle's LawC) Dalton's LawD) Graham's Law
Definition
 A) Henry's Law is significant physiologically for decompression sickness. As a scuba diver ascends too rapidly from a deep dive, nitrogen bubbles form in the blood.
Term
 Which of the following conditions is NOT a result of the physiological effects of gravitational forces?A) cyanosisB) headachesC) stagnant hypoxiaD) blood pooling in lower extremities
Definition
 A) cyanosis is not an example of the physiological effects of gravitational forces. Stagnant hypoxia is related to positive and negative Gz; blood pooling and the lower extremities is related to positive Gz, and headaches are an effect of negative Gz.
Term
 The physiological deficient zone, the fine as an altitude of 10,000 to 50,000 feet, is considered:A) in altitude that is similar to spaceB) and altitude that requires pressure suitsC) the zone to which the human body is adaptedD) a zone in which human survival depends upon pressurization or supplemental oxygen
Definition
 D) the physiologically deficient zone (10,000 to 50,000 feet) is where the majority of commercial aviation brokers. A humans survival depends upon pressurization and supplemental oxygen.
Term
 Which of the following statements best summarizes Dalton's Law?A) the sum total of the partial pressure is equal to all atmospheric pressureB) the amount of gas in a solution is proportional to the partial pressure of gas above the solutionC) pressure of a gas is directly proportional to its temperature with the volume remaining constantD) at a constant temperature, a given volume of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure surrounding the gas
Definition
 A) Dalton's Law, also referred to as the law of partial pressure, states that the sum of the partial pressures is equal to the total atmospheric pressure. This explains hypoxia at higher altitudes.
Term
 Which of the following conditions is an unavoidable stress inherent and the aviation environment?A) fatigueB) vibrationC) dehydrationD) hypoglycemia
Definition
 B) stress is inherent to the aviation environment and includes vibration, gravitational forces, and barometric pressure changes. Fatigue, dehydration, and hypoglycemia can be the result of the stress of flight, but are for the most part avoidable.
Term
 To increase personal resistance to fatigue, members of the air and medical team can:A) maintain good physical conditionB) use hearing protectionC) avoid dehydrationD) all of the above
Definition
 D) to increase personal resistance to fatigue, the air medical team member must know personal sleep requirements to maintain them. Keep in good condition with proper diet, exercise, recreation, and moderation of smoking and alcohol. Where personal protective gear, rich hearing protection. Avoid dehydration by maintaining adequate liquid and snack intake. Limiting personal concerns prior to coming into work is also helpful to increasing personal resistance to fatigue.
Term
 Which of the following is not one of the four basic variables that affect gas volumetric relationships?A) temperatureB) volumeC) relative massD) altitude
Definition
 D) the four basic variables that affect gas volume relationships are temperature, pressure, volume, and the relative mass of a gas or the number of molecules. Gas laws govern the bodies physiological response to barometric pressure changes by these four variables.
Term
 Gas exchange at a cellular level in which a gas from a higher concentration moves to a lower and is an example of which gas law?A) Henry's LawB) Graham's LawC) Boyle's LawD) Dalton's Law
Definition
 B) Gramm's law capitalize at states that the rate of diffusion of a gas through a liquid medium is directly related to the solubility of the gas and inversely proportional to the square root of its density pr gram molecular weight. This means gas goes from a higher to lower concentration.
Term
 The transport crew understands that night vision is altered at altitudes of:A) 3000 feetB) 5000 feetC) 7000 feetD) 10,000 feet
Definition
 B) night vision loss occurs in the first stage of hypoxia at 5000 feet
Term
 Which stage of hypoxia is characterized by an increase in blood pressure, heart rate, and the depth and rate of respirations?A) indifferent stageB) compensatory stageC) disturbance stageD) critical stage
Definition
 B) the second stage is the compensatory stage, which extends from 10,000 to 15,000 feet. This is the stage in which the body attempts to protect itself against hypoxia. An increase in BP, HR, RR, and respiration depth occurs
Term
 A patient with a pneumothorax is at risk for which type of hypoxia when transported by helicopter?A) hypoxic hypoxiaB) stagnant hypoxiaC) hypemic hypoxiaD) histotoxic hypoxia
Definition
 A) Hypoxic hypoxia is a deficiency in alveolar oxygen exchange. Pneumothorx is an example of a cause of reduction ion gas exchange.
Term
 Which stage of hypoxia can be caused by G forces during fixed-wing transport?A) hypoxic hypoxiaB) stagnant hypoxiaC) hypemic hypoxiaD) histotoxic hypoxia
Definition
 B) stagnant hypoxia occurs when conditions exist that result in reduced cardiac output, pooling of the blood within certain regions of the body, a decreased blood flow to the tissues, or restriction of blood flow.
Term
 While transporting a trauma patient by fixed wing, cabin decompression occurs at 30,000 feet. How much time before the crew loses deliberate function?A) less than 15 secondsB) 30-60 secondsC) 90 secondsD) 3-5 minutes
Definition
 C) at 30,000 feet the crew will have 90 seconds from the point of exposure to an oxygen-deficient environment to the point where deliberate function is lost
Term
 While completing a rotor wing transport one crew member begins to experience pain in their upper posterior teeth during decent. What could be the cause?A) barotitis mediaB) delayed ear blockC) barodontalgiaD) barosinusitis
Definition
 C) direct barodontalgia is generally manifested by moderate to severe pain that usually develops during ascent. In direct barodontalgia is a dull, poorly defined pain that involves the posterior maxillary teeth and develops during decent. Tooth pain during decent that involves the upper posterior teeth may be caused by barosinusitis.
Term
 The transport team knows that temperature is inversely proportional to:A) humidityB) oxygenC) pressureD) altitude
Definition
 B) temperature is inversely proportional to altitude, an increase in altitude produces a decrease in temperature and therefore a decreased in the amount of humidity.
Term
 the human body's sensitivity to external vibration is highest between:A) 0.5-10 HzB) 0.5-20 HzC) 10-20 HzD) 5-11 Hz
Definition
 B) research has established eight human sensitivity to external vibration is highest between 0.5 to 20 Hz because the human system absorbs most of the vibratory energy applied within this range
Term
 The transport crew celebrates a Birkla the night before their shift. If the crew has a hangover, what type of hypoxia are they at risk for?A) hypoxic hypoxiaB) hypemic hypoxiaC) stagnant hypoxiaD) histotoxic hypoxia
Definition
 D) use of alcohol can caused histotoxic hypoxia, affect efficiency of cells to use oxygen, and interfere with metabolic activity
Term
 Exposure to positive acceleration can caused blackouts will unaffecting mental activity at:A) 2.5 GzB) 3.5 GzC) 4.5 GzD) 7.5 Gz
Definition
 C) exposure to positive acceleration usually causes deterioration of vision before causing any disturbance of consciousness. Exposure to + 4.5 Gz typically produces complete loss of vision, or "blackout", while hearing and mental activity remained unaffected
Term
 Manifestations of limb pain, respiratory disturbances, syncope, and skin irritation are signs of:A) hypoxiaB) fatigueC) decompression sicknessD) dehydration
Definition
 C) these are classic symptoms of decompression sickness
Term
 The law that explains the rise and fall of temperature in relations to gas expansion is:A) Dalton's LawB) Boyle's LawC) Charles' LawD) Henry's Law
Definition
 C) Charles' Law states that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature of the gas, given that the gas and the pressure of the gas are constant a
Term
 As the pressure of a gas is decreased above a liquid, the amount of gas dissolved in a liquid decreases, leading to bubble formation within the liquid. This represents which gas law?A) Henry's LawB) Boyle's LawC) Charles' LawD) Dalton's Law
Definition
 A) Henry's Law states that the quantity of gas dissolved in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of a gas above the liquid, provided that the gas does not react chemically with liquid
Term
 Which of the following is not a physiological effect of vibration?A) decreased ability to concentrateB) decreased motor functionC) increased metabolic rateD) increase sweating
Definition
 D) vibration can cause circulatory construction and override the body's cooling mechanism thereby decreasing the ability to sweat. For this reason, the body temperatures need to be monitored closely
Term
 During air transport by helicopter one of the crew members begins to get a false sense of climbing. You recognize this as which stress of flight?A) fatigueB) spatial disorientationC) hypoxiaD) G-forces
Definition
 B) occulogravic illusion is a type of spatial disorientation where the individual feels the false sense of climbing
Term
 At 30,000 feet what is the average time of useful consciousness (TUC)?A) 30 minutesB) 3-5 minutesC) 1-2 minutesD) 15-30 seconds
Definition
 C) the time of useful consciousness (TUC), or effective performance time, is the period of time between the interruption of oxygen supply or exposure to an oxygen-poor environment and time when the pilot or crew member is unable to perform flying duties effectively. At 30,000 feet TUC is 1-2 minutes.
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