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CE101 Unit 2
Chapter 2 words
29
Education
Undergraduate 1
08/30/2009

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Term
Socioeconomic Status
Definition
the status within community and society based on income level, family economic stability, and social acceptance.
Term
custodial care
Definition
type of program for young children that emphasized care and service to paretns but did not have strong educational components.
Term
Dame schools
Definition
early local, public schools established in the mid-1600s to provide basic care for children of working mothers.
Term
Johann Amos Comenius
Definition
One of the earliest authors to produce a text outlining a modern system of education for all children (1592-1670).
Term
John Locke
Definition
a doctor and philosopher; first hand experiences as a means of learning; believed children were blank pages that need to be shaped by their experiences.
Term
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Definition
(1712-1778) French Philosopher; believed children were innately perfect and optimal development would unfold naturally without the corrupting influence of some elements of society.
Term
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi
Definition

(1746-1827) Swiss educator; believed:

  • all children are capable of learning
  • learning begins at birth with parents as the first teachers
  • teacher-student discourse and activities should focus on┬áhands-on manipulation of real objects
Term
Robert Owen
Definition
(1771-1858) British educator; created one of the earliest intervention programs (like Head Start), which included infant schools targeted with comprehensive services for poor children as a means of social reform.
Term
day nurseries
Definition
group day-care programs providing basic care and designed as a service to working parents.
Term
Friedrich Froebel
Definition
(1782-1852) German; father of the kindergarten who advocated play-based learning. (Kindergarten means "child's garden")
Term
individualized instruction
Definition
the process of adapting learning experiences or material selection based on the unique needs and abilities of individual children.
Term
Elizabeth Palmer Peabody
Definition
American educator (1804-1894); opend the first English-speaking kindergarten in Boston in 1859. Started the idea of "individualized instruction"; favored teaching through hands-on objects.
Term
Didactic materials
Definition
materials that are specifically designed to be used in one way or focused to teach a particular concept.
Term
open-ended materials
Definition
materials which are less defined to allow for many uses.
Term
G. Stanely Hall
Definition
(1844-1924) First American to receive a doctorate in psychology; emphazied aligning the educational curriculum with the developmental stages; voice concern over children spending too much time in classrooms rather than outside. Also created DAPs (Developmentally Appropriate Practice)
Term
Arnold Gesell
Definition
(1880-1961) placed emphasis on the developmental importance of the early childhood years and promoted the role of parents and teachers as researchers; emphasized the importance of documentation.
Term
John Dewey
Definition

(1859-1952) Most influential contemporary American education scholars; popularized the progressive movement. He emphasized:

  • Education is an active experience with authentic materials
  • Education is meaningful to the individual student
  • Eduation is based on problem-solving activities
Term
Emergent curriculum
Definition
learning experiences and plans that emerge from the children's lives and interests
Term
Margaret and Rachel McMillan
Definition
(1860-1931) and (1850-1917) English ladies that created an open-air nursery school where hygiene, outdoor play, and active hands-on learning were primary goals. Emphasized the important role ECEs have on brain development of young children.
Term
Caroline Pratt
Definition
(1867-1954) firmly committed to validating children's play as the most powerful force in their learning; opened the Play School.
Term
Intrinsic motivation
Definition
the desire, interest, and motivation that are driven by internal forces, as opposed to external rewards.
Term
Equilibrium
Definition
Presented by Piaget, it is the cognitive state of balance, where the child feels comfortable with beliefs, ideas, and knowledge
Term
Assimilation
Definition
integrating new experiences, ideas, or beliefs into existing knowledge structures (schemas)
Term
Private Speech
Definition
children's use of language to organize their thinking, first by talking aloud, and later as silent, internal talk.
Term
zone of proximal development
Definition
Vygostky's theory of learning, which posits that learning occurs when children are supported in working on challenging activities that are beyond what they can achieve on their own.
Term
scaffolding
Definition
a teaching technique that involves giving verbal cues, prompts, and suggestions on appropriately challenging activities.
Term
least resrtictive environment
Definition
part of IDEA, the goal that children with disabilities be provided with educational programming and services in classroom enrivonments that reflect their highest functioning level, ideally in regular classrooms with supports as needed.
Term
Americanizing
Definition
the practice of actively diminishing and erasing diverse backgrounds and influences in an effort to promote dominant American beliefs and culture.
Term
Culturally responsive practices
Definition
an approach to programming that values, supports, and embraces diverse racial, ethnic, linguistic, and cultural influences and backgrounds.
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